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ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES 
IIM THE DELIVERY OF 
PUBLIC HOUSING 




1980 




AREA PLANNING BOARD 
OF PALM BEACH COUNTY 



aiBLIOGRAPHIC DATA 
SHEET 



1. ivcpurc No. 



3. Recipient's Accession No. 



4. iitlc .ir.'i >ub(iclc 



Alternative Strategies in the Delivery of Public Housing 



5. Report Date 

June, 1980 



7- Au£hor(s) 

Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County 



a. Performing Organization Repc. 
No. 



9. Performing Organization Name anU Address 

Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County 
2300 Palm Beach Lakes Boulevard, Suite 200 
West Palm Beach, Florida 33409 



10. Project/Task/Vi'ork Unit No. 



1 1. Contraci/Giant No. 

CPA-rL-04-00-1066 



12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
451 Seventh Street, S. W. 
Washington, D. C. 20410 



13. Type of Report Si. Period 
Covered 

Housing, 1980 



14. 



15. Supplementary Notes 



I 



16. Abstracts 

The major purpose of this study is to investigate the current public housing 
delivery system operatin g within Palm Beach County and to analyze alternative 
mechanisms, which do exist or could exist, for the purpose of addressing 
public housing as an areawide issue. 



17. Key %'ords and Document Analysis. 17a. Descriptors 

Introduction 

The Development of Public Housing 

The Bevel opment of Local Housing Authorities 

Public Housing in Palm Beach County 

Status of Public Housing in Palm Beach County 

Alternative Public Housing Delivery Systems 



17b, Identifiers /Open-Ended Terms 



7c. COSATI Kit: I.I /Group 



3. Avuil.ibility Scutement 



Of • -1 -,s. 



19. Security Class (Thi» 
Rcpo.' ; 



20. Security Class ( Thi 
l/NCI. ASSn-l!-!) 



21. \u. oi ^'a<«.•b 

133 ' 



22. Price- 



^3.50 



I -« •. V i-lll 



THIS FOUM MAY fit KEPKOnL;Cr.D 



'jicoMM-oc • •i'yti-^rz 



ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES IN THE DELIVERY 
OF PUBLIC HOUSING 



Prepared by: 

Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County 
June, ■ 1980 



The preparation of this report was financed in part through 

a Comprehensive Planning Grant frctn the 
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development 



AREA PLANNING BOARD OF 
PALM BEACH COUNTY 



Charles W. Potter, Chairman 

Charlotte G. Durante, 
Vice Chairperson 

Thomas Altman 
Fred 0. Easley 
Richard Ellington 
Frank Foster 
Norman Gregory 
Howard Johnson 
Shirley K. Vail an 



BOARD MEMBERS 

Appointed by: 
Appointed by: 

Appointed by: 
Appointed by: 
Appointed by: 
Appointed by: 
Appointed by: 
Appointed by: 
Appointed by: 



Palm Beach County Legislative 

Delegation 
Palm Beach County Legislative 

Delegation 

Palm Beach County Legislative 

Delegation 
Palm Beach County Legislative 

Delegation 
Board of County Commissioners 

Palm Beach County 
Board of County Commissioners 

Palm Beach County 
Board of County Commissioners 

Palm Beach County 
School Board of Palm Beach 

County 
Palm Beach County Legislative 

Delegation 



Frank W. Brutt 
Eugene A. Caputo 
Jack L. Horniman 
Ned R. Brooke 
Richard D. Stalker 
Steven R. Hoffacker 
Ben E. Brown 



STAFF DIRECTORS 

Executive Director 

Assistant Director 

Director of Comprehensive Planning 

Director of Transportation Planning 

Director of Environmental Planning 

Director of Research 

Chief Cartographer 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Chapter Page 

I. INTRODUCTION • 1 

II. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC HOUSING 5 

Development of a Federal Public Housing Program 5 

The United States Housing Act of 1937 7 

The Evolution of Public Housing Legislation in the 1940s and 1950s.. 8 

The 19603 and 19703: Public Housing Legislation Reborn 10 

Overview 13 

III. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL HOUSING AUTHORITIES 17 

The Origin of Local Housing Authorities 17 

Florida' s Enabling Legislation 18 

The Function of Local Housing Authorities 20 

The Inception of Public Housing in Palm Beach County 20 

IV. PUBLIC HOUSING IN PALM BEACH (DUUTL 23 

West Palm Beach Housing Authority 23 

Palm Beach County Housing Authority 37 

Belle Glade Housing Authority 51 

Pahokee Housing Authority 57 

Riviera Beach Housing Authority 66 

Delray Beach Housing Authority 75 

Boca Raton Housing Authority 81 

V. AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSING ADTHORITY OPERATIONS IN PALM BEACH COUNTY ... 83 

Physical Characteristics 83 

Organizational Characteristics ........" 90 

Financial Characteristics 94 

Service Characteristics 102 

VI. ALTERNATIVE HOUSING DELIVERY STRATEGIES FDR PALM BEACH COUNTY 109 

REFERENCES 1 17 

APPENDIX - Public Housing Sites 119 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table Page 

1 West Palm Beach Housing Authority Projects 25 

2 Routine Expenditures: West Palm Beach Housing Authority 30 

3 Non-Routine Expenditures: West Palm Beach Housing Authority .... 31 

4 Rent Allocations: West Palm Beach Housing Authority 32 

5 Occupancy Standards : West Palm Beach Housing Authority 33 

6 Palm Beach County Housing Authority 39 

7 Palm Beach County Section 23 Units UO 

8 Palm Beach County Section 8 Existing Units Located in Incorporated 

Areas 41 

9 Palm Beach County Section 8 Existing Units Located in Unincor- 

porated Areas 41 

10 Routine Expenditures: Palm Beach County Housing Authority 45 

11 Non-Routine Expenditures: Palm Beach County Housing Authority .. 46 

12 Occupancy Standards: Palm Beach County Housing Authority 48 

13 Belle Glade Housing Authority Projects 52 

14 Operating Expenditures: Belle Glade Housing Authority 56 

15 Pahokee Housing Authority Projects 58 

16 Routine Expenditures: Pahokee Housing Authority 63 

17 Non-Routine Expenditures: Pahokee Housing Authority 64 

18 Occupancy Standards : Pahokee Housing Authority 65 

19 Riviera Beach Housing Authority Projects 67 

20 Routine Expenditures : Riviera Beach Housing Authority 71 

21 Delray Beach Housing Authority Projects 77 

22 Boca Raton Section 8 Existing Units 82 

23 Housing Authority - Physical Characteristics - Palm Beach County. 84 

24 Housing Authority Program Development Activity: 1980 89 

25 Housing Authority - Organizational Characteristics - Palm Beach 

County 92 

2b Relative Personnel Adequacy 93 

27 Housing Authority - Financial Characteristics - Palm Beach County 95 

28 A comparison of Housing Authority Rcutine Expenditures 98 

29 Financial Characteristics: Section 8 Existing Housing Palm Beach 

County 101 

30 Service Cnaract eristics : Public Housing 103 

3 1 Housing Authority Waiting List Information 104 

32 Housing Authority Tenant Organizations 1 07 



ii 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Page 

I. Neighborhood Strategy Areas and Public Housing Sites in West 

Palm Beach 24 

II. West Palm Beach Housing Authority Organizational Chart 7& 

III. Neighborhood Strategy Areas 36 

17. Palm Beach County Housing Authority Organizational Chart 43 

V. Belle Glade Housing Authority Organizational Chart 55' 

VI. Public Housing Sites - Pahokee 59 

VH. Pahokee Housing Authority Organizational Chart 62 

YIII. Riviera Beach Housing Authority Organizational Chart 70 

IX. Delray Beach Housing Authority Organizational Chart 78 

X- Public Housing Construction Activity in Palm Beach County: 

1 940- 1 980 84 

XI. Federally Assisted (Section 8 ) Housing 88 

XII . Public Housing Authority Cooperation Continuum Ill 



111 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION 

Subsidized housing has been a part of the governmental and societal frame- 
work of Palm Beach County for forty- two (42) years. The first housing 
authority within Palm Beach County was created in 1938, and since then 
seven (7) additional housing authorities have been created. Tae structural 
framework under viiich these authorities qDerate is such that each is an 
independent and autonomous entity within its respective jurisdiction. This 
structural design suggests that housing problems have jurisdictional boundaries. 
In seeking to solve its own problems, each community does not necessarily 
contribute to the interest of the larger metropolitan area. Recently, 
there has been a growing awareness that many problems (including housing 
problems) must be dealt with on a multi-jiorisdictional basis, since these 
problems transcend jurisdictional boundaries. 

The federal government's recognition of the mult i- jurisdictional nature of 
housing and related issues found finn expression in the Housing and Can- 
munity Development Act of 1974 and in its 1977 amendments. The 1974 Act 
provided a comprehensive approach to ccmmunity needs and objectives. 
Although housing was its focal point, emphasis was extended to encanpass 
the total ccmmunity environment (i.e., streets, drainage, water and sewer, 
sidewalks, parks, recreational facilities, etc.). The Act nandated an 
areawide approach to these concerns and provided for automatic grant entitle- 
ments to metropolitan cities (over 50,000 population) and urban 
counties. *>^^^ 

In addition to the implementation of housing and related developments, 
provision was also made for comprehensive planning. The 1974 Act amended 
the Ccmprehensive Planning Assistance Program which was initiated by 
Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954. A chief amendment to the Act 
specified that all recipients of ccmprehensive planning assistance would be 
required to carry out an on-going planning process, including a comprehensive 
plain designed to include a housing element. ^^^ 

The comprehensive planning anendment had an impact on the comprehensive 
planning requirements in Florida. The state passed 1974 Special Ccmpre- 
hensive Planning Legislation for Palm Beach County, and in 1975, the Florida 
Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act was enacted. Tne 1974 legis- 
lation, which affected Palm Beach County only, amended the enabling legis- 
lation of the Area Planning Board (APB) of Palm Beach County, and mandated 
all municipalities and the unincorporated county to prepare and adopt 
comprehensive plans designed to include a housing element. The 1975 legis- 
lation mandated similar requiranents throughout the state. 

The APB subsequently took the available local government ccmprehensive 
plans and developed an areawide plan. This accanplishment was reflected in 
the 1977 Regional Comprehensive Development Plan (RCDP) for Palm Beach 
County (which is currently being updated). The RCDP contains a Residential 
Development element which addresses the broader concern of the availability 
of a quality residential environment for all segments of the population, 
along with the ciiaracter and quality of housing. ^3) 

1 



The comprehensive planning amendment in the Housing and Community Development 
Act of 197^ also provided a channel for the pursuit of a specific objective 
of the Act: "the reduction of the isolation of income groups vdthin communities 
and geographical areas and the pronotion of an Increase in the diversity 
and vitality of neighborhoods throu^ the spatial deconcentration of housing 
opportunities . . . " ^ ^ >* 

In order to realize this objective, HUD has been encouraging, since 1977, 
the development of Areawide Housing Opportunity Plans (AHOPs). The AHCP is 
defined as: 

"...a strategy for a program of implementation activities developed 
by an areawide planning organization v^ich addresses areawide 
housing assistance needs and goals in' accordance vdth the program 
objective of providing for a broader geographical choice of 
housing opportunities for lower-income households outside areas 
and jurisdictions containing undue concentrations of low-inccme 
and minority households. "^57 

As a planning program designed for areawide application, the AHCP recog- 
nizes that housing assistance needs and objectives cannot be adequately 
addressed at the local level. The AHOP provides an opportunity for local 
governments within a metropolitan or regional setting to assist in the 
alleviation of areawide housing problems through cooperation and 
participation. 

An AHOP has been developed for Palm Beach County and vas the first locally 
supported plan in Florida to be submitted to HUD. The AHOP, as of the 
writing of this report, has been adopted by 32 of the 38 jurisdictions 
located within Palm Beach Cointy. While the Residential Development element 
of the RCDP is intended as a guide to local decision making, and is therefore 
broad and general in nature, the AHOP provides a more detailed and specific 
approach to housing assistance needs. ^^) Sane local governments, in order to 
realize their low-inccme housing objectives, have chosen to rely solely on their 
local housing authority, while other local governments, recognizing that low and 
moderate income housing is an areawide issue, have joined together in endorsing 
an AHOP for Palm Beach County. 

Essentially, it is clear that both the federal goverrment and the State of 
Florida have recognized the areawide nature of housing needs and objectives 
and have taken definitive steps to address housing as an areawide issue. 
In Palm Beach County, a formal mechanism has yet to be established or 
recognized for the purpose of addressing public housing as an areawide 
issue. The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which such a 
mechanism might represent a viable alternative to the present approach 
wherein all housing authorities operate autonomously, and as such address 
public housing as a local issue. More specifically, this study is interested 
in exploring the extent to which an areawide mechanism would encourage 
economies or diseconomies of scale relative to overall administrative costs 
(e.g., staff salaries, the provision of tenant services, and the maintenance 
of public housing projects) and program subsidies to tenants. This study 



equally examines the capacity of an areawide mechanism to facilitate a 
broader geographical choice of housing opportunities for lower-income 
households, especially outside of areas presently containing undue concen- 
trations of lower- income households. It is the underlying assumption of this 
report that the extent to which public housing is treated as an areawide issue 
is directly related to the availability of quality housing for public housing 
taiants in Palm Beach County. It is also assumed that the adequacy of the ser- 
vices to these low-inccme families is also affected by the treatment of public 
housing as an areawide issue. 

With public housing as its central focus, this study initially provides a 
historical view of the subject, highlighting the major issues and events in 
the development of a federal public housing program. Subsequently, the 
origin and developnent of local housing authorities is presented. After 
these preliminary considerations, an organizational profile of each housing 
authority in the County is presented, including an analysis of each agency 
based on the information presented in the profile. This background material 
provides the basis for discussing the structural adequacy of the present 
approach as it addresses public housing as a local issue. Finally, alter- 
native models for the delivery of public housing fron an areawide perspective 
are presented, in addition to a reccmmendation on the most suitable model 
for Palm Beach County. 



FOOTNOTES 



1. A metropolitan city is a local government containing 50,000 population 
or more within a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). An 
urban county is a county with powers to perform essential housing and com- 
munity development functions, with a population (exclusive of metropolitan 
cities) of 200,000; composed of: a) unincorporated areas, b) canmunities 
with the authority to undertake coamunity developnent activities and that 
do not desire- to be excluded- from the county's eligibility, and c) ccoi- 
munities Altering into cooperation agresnents with the county. See, Edward 
Silverman, "Conmunity Developnent - Title I of the Housing and Coinnunity 
Development Act of 1974," Journal of Housing (August 1974), p. 350. 

2. Ibid., p,359. 

3. Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, Regional Comprehensive 
Development Plan for Palm Beach County , 1977, p. 7.7 

4. Silverman, "Community Development", p. 358. 

5. U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Developnent, Federal Register , 
"Areawide Housing Opportunity Plans," Part IV, (Washington, D.C.: 
Government Printing Office (GPO), Monday, January 16, 1978), p. 2356. 

6. Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, Areawide Housing Opportunity 
Plan , 1979, p.iii. 



CHAPTER U 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC HOUSDIG 

This chapter highlights the major issues and events in the 'development of a 
federal public housing program. The review presented herein is largely 
descriptive and is not intended to be analytical. At the national level, 
attention is given to conditions prior to the Depression, the impact of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, the origin of the United States 
Housing Act of 1937, and major trends in the evolution of housing legisla- 
tion relative to the public housing program. The significance of this 
chapter is chiefly the establishment of a historical perspective on public 
housing at the federal level. 

Development of a Federal Public Housing Program 

In the early 1900s, local governments had almost exclusive control over all 
matters relating to housing. ^^^ The absence of federal involvement was a 
reflection of the prevailing attitudes of both state and local governments 
toward federal involvement. 

During this period, federal involvement (especially financial) was neither 
expected nor its need recognized. (2) Housing was largely considered a private 
matter, with little public awareness of the unsafe and unsanitary housing 
conditions that existed in many cities. Consequently, little was done by 
state and local governments during this period to arrest the proliferation 
of slum conditions. 

The relationship among federal, state, and local governments changed sub- 
stantially with the onset of the Depression. Amid national economic devas- 
tation, state and local governments, out of necessity, conceded to the need 
for substantial increases in federal aid in order to increase employment 
and stimulate the eccnany.^3) With the federal goverrment's response, central- 
.ization occur^red within the American federal system. Tae center of power 
moved frcm the state and local levels to the federal level of government. 

To revive a slumbering national economy, President Roosevelt's "New Deal" 
administration recognized the strategic significance of the corjstruction 
industry. Realizing that the construction industry was dependent upon a 
myriad of other industries for a variety of materials, the Roosevelt admin- 
istration focused substantial energies on the revival of residential con- 
struction through the stimulation of public works. (^) This strategy was 
developed within the various provisions of the National Industrial Recovery 
Act of 1933. Public housing received its greatest initial boost under this 
Act. Thus, it was not until the Depression that any significant attention 
was given to the pervasive problem of providing adequate housing for low- 
incane families. 



Title H of the National Industrial Recovery Act nandated the creation of a 
Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works. Pursuant to a principal 
provision of the Act, the Public Worics Administration (PWA) was responsible 
for preparing a comprehensive program designed to stimulate employment and 
purchasing power through the construction of various public projects. More 
specifically, this vas to include the "construction, reconstruct ion, alteration, 
or repair under public regulation (and the) control of low-cost housing and 
slum clearance projects. "''^57 jn order to realize these objectives, the PWA's 
organizational structure included a Housing Division. The implementation 
of work relief activities designed to create employment opportunities 
through the construction of low-rent housing projects was the Housing 
Division's principal function. The Housing Division was also expected to 
"demonstrate the possibilities of slum clearance and low-rent housing. "^°) 
This flmction constituted an experimental aspect of the program. 

Initially, the Housing Division operated under a system which called for 
the solicitation of applications fran authorized, locally owned, limited- 
dividend corporations.^'^) Frcm the local perspective, this approach, among 
other things, had the appeal of decentralization. However, this concept 
was soon abandoned in lieu of a centralized approach wherein the Housing 
Division would perform both construction and management functions. PWA 
officials explained that experience had indicated that local agencies were 
rarely able to provide the equity required or to prcmote the types of 
projects that would further the interest of the recovery effort (out of 500 
applications, only seven met the criteria for approvaD.^^-^ 

A major hurdle faced by this centralized administration concerned the 
problem of acquiring project sites throu^ the use of aninent domain. In 
1935, the Housing Division lost a significant legal action over a proposed 
project in Louisville, Kentucky. ^5) xhis court decision had the effect of 
strengthening local opposition to the program's centralized structure. The 
Housing Division responded by reorganizing to increase state and local 
government participation throu^ decentralization. The states were required 
to develop enabling legislation authorizing local governments to create 
local housing authorities. These housing authorities would develop, cwn, 
and operate low-rent housing projects. ^^o) Through this action, the conc^t 
of the authority, as a corporate form, was introduced into the area of 
housing. ^-^^ 

Between 1935 and 1936, the slum clearance and low-rent housing experiment 
was reviewed and evaluated. The program had faced tremendous obstacles, 
largely due to its unprecedented nature. Other problems arose due to the 
program's dual and conflicting tasks of stimulating both econanic and 
social, progress. From the economic standpoint, the desperate need to 
increase employment dictated haste in housing construction. From the 
standpoint of social progress, however, the experimental aspect of the 
program (i.e., "to demonstrate the possibilities of slum clearance and low- 
rent housing") demanded careful study and deliberation. ^^2) 2u.t in spite of 
the program's many faults and failures, including a total of four (U) 
directors in less than four (4) years, a noticeable measure of success was 
achieved. The PWA program had demonstrated the practicability of low-rent 
housing. It demonstrated that slums could be efficiently cleared, and that 
rehoused families could live decently, pay their rents, and develop sound 
community life.*^^3) The program also had supplied the initial laboratory for 



planning and had provided the impetus for a decentralized administration in all 
subsequent programs. On the viiole, the success of the slum clearance and low- 
rent housing program symbolized the initiation of a public housing 
movement. ^^^' 

The United States Housing Act of 1937 

The greatest testimonial to the success of the PV2A program was the passage 
of the United States Housing Act of 1937 and the creation of the United 
States Housing Authority. This Act was primarily an extension of the "New 
Deal" strategy to relieve unemployment and stimulate the econany through 
increased construction. At the same time, it also symboHzed the federal 
government's acceptance of the responsibility to provide decent, safe, and 
sanitary housing for low-inccme families and the elimination of slum 
conditions. ^-^5) This Act, in turn, symbolized an official recognition by the 
federal government of the housing needs ar^ problems of low-incane families 
in America. 

The Housing Act of 1937 was the product of a bill introduced in the Senate 
and a canpanion bill introduced in the House of Representatives. After an 
intense Congressional Conference Committee debate, the substance of the 
confined legislative viewpoint was that the primary purpose of the program 
was slum clearance not the construction of public housing. The program was 
also intended to stimulate onployment. A corollary function was the extension 
of public aid through slum clearance and the construction of public housing. 
The legislature envisioned the transf unction of public housing fran an 
emergency program into one of ssni-pennanence. The United States Housing 
Authority was. given a 3-year trial run which was subject to Congressional 
review. ^^°' 

The achievement of the goals within the Housing Act of 1937 was dependent 
upon the administrative success of the new United States Housing Authority. 
The Act contained the following statanent of policy to be administered by 
this agency: 

"(It is) the policy of the United States to pranote the general welfare 
of the nation by employing its funds and credit, as provided in this 
Act, to assist the several states and their political subdivisions to 
alleviate present and recurring unemployment and to remedy the unsafe 
and unsanitary housing conditions and the acute shortage of decent, 
safe, and sanitary dwellings for families of low-incane, in rural or 
urban communities, that are injurious to the health, safety, and 
morals of the citizens of the nation."^^'^) 

Thus, the federal public housing program became operational. 

This program consisted of a partnership between the United States Housing 
Authority and various local housing authorities. The housing built as a result 
of this partnership was known as "conventional" public housing, (i.e., rental 
property) for which public authority served as both developer and landlord. 
Public housing is "conventional" if an agency of government purchases and clears 
the site, contracts for design and construction of the housing, and manages the 



completed structure. ^^"^ Financial assistance for the construction of public 
housing was aade available to local housing authorities in the form of loans, 
capital grants, and annual contributions. With loans and grants seldan being 
made, financial assistance was almost always through annual contributions. The 
annual contribution contract consisted of a contractual guarantee on the part of 
the federal government to nake a payment each year equal to the cost of debt 
service on the bonds issued by the local housing authority vtiich financed 
construction of its housing projects. In effect, the federal governnent under- 
took to pay off the capital costs of public housing, ^-^^^ 

The United States Housing Act of 1937 provided the base for several subsequent 
acts which have perpetuated Congressional intent in this area of social policy. 
Therefore, this Act stands as a legislative milestone. 

The Evolution of Public Housing Legislation in the 19^0s and 19503 

Since the birth of the public housing program, through the enactment of the 
Housing Act of 1937, its life and development have been impacted by several 
significant trends. These trends, which have been largely positive, are 
directly attributable to the evolution of housir-g legislation relative to 
the public housing program. 

Between 1937 and 19^9, a major trend continued wherein the development of a 
public housing program was still seemingly attached to major national 
emergencies rather than the housing problem itself. During this period, 
two Congressional acts perpetuated this trend; the Housing Act of 1938 and 
the Lanham Act of 19^0. Under the Housing Act of 1938, the situation was 
the same as it had. been in 1933 when the federal government initially 
became involved with low-rent housing, and in 1937 when the public housing 
program was bom. The social significance of public housing was again 
subordinated by economic problems. In the wake of a sharp downturn in 
economic activity, the Housing Act of 1938 was largely recognized for its 
injection of an additional $300 million into the econony. ^ 20 ) Although 
largely incidental, this action did have the impact of furthering the life 
and development of the public housing program. As a national priority, 
the Lanham Act of 1940 provided for the construction of housing for defense 
workers utilizing the existing public housing mechanian. The war housing 
project subordinated all peacetime public housing construction until 19^5. 
During its implementation, over $2 billion were spent. ^ 21) ;vTiile the Lanham 
Act's impact was positive, the trend was still being perpetuated wherein 
the development of the public housing program was attached to a national 
emergency rather than the housing problem itself. 

In the wake of a tremendous postwar housing need, perhaps the most significant 
trend in the development of the public housing program was crystalized by 
the Housing Act of 1949. As a landmark in the evolution of housing policy, 
the Housing Act of 1949 established a trend wherein the social significance 
of the public housing program would permanently be its dominant virtue. A 
program that had been "bom of depression times and nursed from infancy by 
various emergencies..." had finally ccme into its cwn.'^-^^ 



For the first time in the history of housing legislation, broad support came 
fron Congress, the major political parties, and the general public. The 
strength of these combined forces was reflected in Section 2 of the Act which 
states: 

"The Congress hereby declares that the general welfare and security of the 
Nation and the health and living standards of its people require housing 
production and related ccninunity development sufficient to ranedy the 
serious housing shortage, through the clearance of slums and blighted areas, 
and the realization as soon as feasible of the goal of a decent home and a 
suitable living environment for every American family , thus contributing to 
the development and redevelopment of comiunities and to the advancement of 
the growth, wealth and security of the Nation. "^23) (Einphasis added) 

This Congressional declaration was of major significance to the public housing 
program. It symbolized a genuine recognition of the housing problan, and placed 
it near the top of the list of national public policy priorities. This declara- 
tion also symbolized an expansion of the Congressional interpretation of the 
housing problem. No longer was the goal simply a matter of decent housing but a 
"suitable living environment" as well. This implied a concern for the larger 
matter of ccmmunity development and redevelopment. 

In support of its housing pledge, Congress authorized the annual construction 
of 135,000 units of public housing for six (6) years for a total of 810,000 
units. These, plus the 160,000 to 170,000 units of public housing which 
were already under management, indicated that the Congress had a goal of 
one million units by mid-1955. ^24) 

As housing legislation continued to evolve, the Housing Act of 1954 proved 
to be highly significant to the housing cause in general. Government 
"private-use" housing programs, such as the Federal Housing Administration, 
were streamlined. (257 However, with respect to the public housing program, 
the impact of the Housing Act of 1954 only served to perpetuate what appeared 
to be an attonpt to terminate the program despite the grandiose pledge of 
'the Housing Act of 1949. As a result of two situations, the period between 
1950 and 1953 was marked by a continuing cutback in public housing construction. 
The first situation involved materials restrictions due to the advent of 
the Korean War. The second situation involved a continuing effort by the 
House of Representatives to restrict the expansion of the public housing 
program. The Independent Office Appropriations Act of 1954, which regarded 
the public housing program as non-essential, was strongly supported by the 
House of Representatives. A cutback in public housing construction was 
perpetuated by the Housing Act of 1954. Even though the 1954 Act authorized 
35,000 additional units, it contained several restricting measures which 
made the allocation of units for construction virtually impossible. 

The number of new starts was slowed down to 16,000 in 1954, and to approxi- 
mately 9,000 and 5,000, respectively, in 1955 and 1956.(26) it took seven 
(7) years, from 1955 to 1961, to achieve a total of 118,000 completed units 
compared to the yearly goal of 135,000 units under the Housing Act of 1949. 



The 1960s and 19703: Public Housing Legislation Reborn 

The early 196O3 was the beginning of a trend to diminish a growing stigma 
attached to concentrations of public housing. The new idea involved a 
shift away frcoi convention?!! public housing placing the ownership and 
operation of assisted housing in the hands of private invididuals and 
groups. ^^^ This idea marked the introduction of private developers as 
participants in the public housing program. This was clearly expressed in 
the Housing Act of 1965 ► 

The Housing Act of 1965 introduced the Section 23 leasing operation. ^^^ 
Under this program, local housing authorities were permitted to lease pri- 
vate units, which in turn, were sublet to public housing tenants. ^29) These 
leases were allowed to involve existing as well as newly constructed units. 

As the evolution of housing legislation continued, it is noteworthy to 
address the significance of the Department of Housing and Urban Development 
Act which was passed on SeptsEber 9, 1965. This Act created the Department 
of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) with the- following basic goals: 

1. Revitalization of urban areas 

2, Shelter for all Americans 
3 • Fair housing opportunities 

4. Increasing the capacity of ccmmunities and neighbortioods to 
achieve revitalization. ^30) 

In addition to HUD's creation, it is equally significant that the adminis- 
tration of national housing policy was elevated to Cabinet level importance. 
This event stands as a testimonial to the priority of the housing needs of 
the nation. 

Perpetrating ■ the trend initiated in 1965, HUD introduced, in 1967, as an 
administrative procedure, the "Turnkey Method." This program authorized a 
local housing authority to enter into a contract with a private developer, 
wherein the developer would build a project according to the specifications 
of the local housing authority and then sell the project to the authority 
upon completion, ^317 

Prior to these two (2) developments, the local housing authority participated 
in all phases of the development, construction, and nnnagement of public 
housing. With the onset of these programs, housing authorities began to 
move away from their traditional roles to assume new roles as the "lessor 
and lessee" and "developer/sponsor and purchaser,"^ 32) 

The next major trend in the development of the public housing program was 
derived from the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1969, Section 213(a), 
known as the Brooke Amendment. The Brooke Amendment of 1969 (and the 
Amendments of 1970 and 1971) had three (3) purposes: 



10 



1) To place an upper limit of 25 percent on the proportion of family 
inccme that could be dnarged for rent and offset resultant revenue 
losses to the housing authority; 

2) To provide the housing authority vdth the operating and nain- 
tenance subsidies needed on a permanent basis; and 

3) To supply housing authorities which were already in sericus finan- 
cial trouble with additional reserve funds. ^33) 

This legislation evidenced a movement away frcm the structural and basic 
philosophical concerns of the program to a more direct alignment with the 
basic concerns of the public housing tenant. 

The Brooke Amendments had their nDst profound effects in preserving the 
low-incane diaracter of the public housing program and in financially sup- 
porting the goal of decent housing for low- inccme families. Consequently, 
the Brooke Amendments were responsible for multiplying the federal 
government's operating subsidy payments ninefold, from ^1 mLlIion in 
fiscal year 1970 to $280 million in fiscal year 1973.*^ 3^; 

The Housing and Canmunity Development Act of 1974 had as its primary objec- 
tive "the development of viable urban ccmmunities, to be achieved by pro- 
viding decent housing and a suitable living environnent and by expanding 
economic opportunities, principally for persons of low and moderate 
income. "^35; xhe canmunity development theme of this Act resulted frcm a 
consolidation of the following categorical programs into a new block grant 
approach: 

"Model Cities 

Urban Renewal (including Neighborhood Development Programs) 

Rehabilitation Loans 

Water and Sewer 

Open Space Land 

Public Facility Loans 

Neighbortiood Facilities 

The adoption of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 provided 
for the Section 8 Housing Assistance Payment Program. Section 8 essen- 
tially provides rent subsidies for lower-income families, making decent 
housing in the private market affordable to them. HUD makes up the dif- 
ference between what a lower-income household can afford and the fair 
market rent for the housing unit. Tenants are not required to pay more 
than 25 percent of adjusted income toward rent. Section 8 rental 
assistance may be used in existing housing, new construction or the 
substantial rehabilitation of units. ^ 36 ) 



11 



Two additional trends in recent years are directly related to the growing 
popularity of the Section 8 Housing Assistance Payment Program. The 
Section 8 Program is currently the most popular public housing assistance 
program. Being similar to Section 23, but replacing it, Section 8 sym- 
bolizes a perpetuation of an earlier trend involving a partnership between 
local authorities and private cwners and developers, and thus, the de- 
emphasis of conventional public housing. The popularity of the Section 8 
Program also syiiiaolizes the growth of a new and larger trend v^ich encoura- 
ges housing mobility and the deconcentration of low-incane households. 
This trend is currently being perpetuated by the HUD Areawide Housing 
Opportunity Plan discussed in Chapter I. 

The Act of ^91^ realized the caomunity development conc^t vAiich first 
appeared in the Congressional declaration embodied in the Housing Act of 
1949. The Housing and Ccramunity Development' Act of 197^ essentially pro- 
vided a comprehensive approach to ccmmunity needs and objectives with 
housing as the focal point. This Act has been superceded by the Housing 
and Community Development Act of 1977. 

Another trend of significance is directly related to a change in the tradi- 
tional structure of the public housing program. The Housing Act of 1937 
provided for "Public Housing Agency" (PHA) , including a ccunty or municipa- 
lity, which could receive federal funds to operate low-rent housing and 
clear slums. ^37) Traditionally, public housing programs at the local level, 
have been developed and operated almost exclusively by the local housing 
authority (no doubt because this nEchanisra was in place prior to the 
Housing Act of 1937). With respect to the Section 8 Program, the door was 
opened for the possible passing of this tradition since the definition of a 
PHA was expanded. HUD regulations for the Section 8 Program define a PHA 
as "any state, county, municipality or other governmental entity or public 
body (or agency or instrument thereof) which is authorized to engage in or 
assist in the development or operation of housing for low-incone 
families. "^38) Currently, there is no apparent proliferation of PHAs 
(particularly in Palm Beach County). This situation, thus, largely 
involves only a significant structural change. Obviously, however, the 
stage has been set for an increase in the number of PHAs. Nonetheless, the 
thrust of this structural diange is, at least, suggestive of a need for 
increased flexibility in alternative public housing delivery mechanisms. 

A final trend of significance involves a shift fran emphasis on the provi- 
sion of adequate physical facilities (i.e., from the concept of decent and 
well managed units) to a concern for the social welfare of the tenants 
(i.e., the development of a sense of community, provisions for tenant orga- 
nizations, tenant participation in policy-making and management, and provi- 
sions for and access to social services and recreational programs). Tenant 
access to social services and recreational programs is most comnonly being 
facilitated through intergovernmental coordination between public housing 
authorities and various public and private social service agencies. The 
net result is that public housing is increasingly becaning a part of the 
social service program in the United States. Tenant participation in 
policy-making and nanagement is nationally a prcminent issue. In November 
1977, HUD created, for a one- year term, the Task Forum Tenant Participation 
in the Management of Low- Income Housing/ 39) The final report from this Task 
Force, which contains its recommendations, was submitted to HUD where it is 
currently under consideration. 

12 



Overview 

The major factor responsible for the birth of the federal public housing 
program was the state of the national economy due to the Depression of the 
late 1920s and early 1930s. The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 
was a major legislative action to counteract the Depression, but it also 
initiated the federal government's entry into low-rent public housing. The 
federal public housing program, however, was not operationalized until the 
enactment of the United States Housing Act of 1937. 

In 1965, the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act was enacted. 
This Act created the Department of Housing and Urban Development, which 
currently administers a wide range of programs including the federal public 
housing program. It was through the passage of this Act that the ultimate • 
importance of the nation's housing needs was established as the adminis- 
tration of national housing policy was elevated to Cabinet level importance. 

It is difficult to accurately gauge the impact and the adequacy of the 
various trends reflected in the discussion of the evolution of housing 
legislation relative to the public housing program. However, it is obvious 
and commendable that the challenge to reconcile housing problans, particularly 
those of low- income families, has been accepted by the federal government. 



13 



FOOTNOTES 

1 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Housing in the Seventies ^ 
(Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1974), pp. 139. 

2 Robert K. Brown, The Development of Public Housing in the United States , 
(Atlanta: Georgia State College of Business Administration, I960), p. 1. 

3 Measured in ta^ms of cash expended for federal grants to state and local 
government, the New Deal Program dwarfed anything that had been previously 
undertaken. Federal payments rose from $232 million in 1932 to a pre-World 
War II peak of $976 million in 193^* with payments never falling below the 
1938 level of $762 million until after the war. Thomas J. Parlar and 
Edward S. Kiely, eds. Public Administration , Intergovernmental Relations and 
Local Government Administration , PacKage XI, (Pittsburgh: University of 
Pittsburgh for the Urban Management Curriculum Development Project and, the 
National Training and Development Service, n.d. ), p. XI. I. 22. 

4 Brown, The Development of Public Housing , p. 4. 

5 Ibid ., p. 6. 

6 Ibid . 

7 Ibid ., p. 8. 

8 Ibid . 

9 U.S. Departsnent of Housing and Urban Development, Housing in the Seventies, 
p. 9. 

10 Eugene J. Meehan, Public Housing Policy , (New Brunswick: Center for Urban 
Policy Research, Rutgers University, 1975), p. 17. 

11 For discussion of corporate nature of the authority, see Chapter III of this 
APB report, p. 18. 

12 Brown, The Development of Public Housing , p. 6. 

13 Charles Abrams, The Future of Housing , (New York: Harper & Bros., 1946), 
p. 256. 

14 Eugene Fadner Birch, '^oman-Made America: The Case of Early Public Housing 
Policy," Journal of the American Institute of Planners , 44, (April 1978), 
p. 131. 

15 In the United States Housing Act of 1937, slum is defined as "...any area 
where dwellings predominate which, by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, 
faulty design, lack of ventilation, light or sanitation facilities, or any 
combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health, or morals. 
Brown, The Development of Public Housing , p.iii. 



14 



16 Brown, ^le Development of Public Housing , p. 3^-35. 

17 Ibid., p. 35. 

18 Msehan, Public Housing; Policy , p. 7. - 

19 Ibid., p. 18. 

20 Brown, The Development of Public Housins? . p. 38. 

21 Ibid ., p. 47. 

22 Ibid ., p. 66. 

23 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Develojxnent, Housing in the Seventies , 
p. 11. 

24 National Conmission on Urban Problans , Building the American City , 
(Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, T9F8), p. 110. 

25 Brown, The Development of Public Housing , p. 75. The Federal Housing 
Administration was created by the National Housing Act of 1934 to provide • 
mortgage insurance for private hemes and rental housing projects. This loan 
insurance was provided to private financial institutions. 

26 National Conmission on Urban Problems, Building the American City , p. 111. 

27 Ibid ., p. 143. 

28 "Section" means the part of an Act to i^Mch reference is made. 

29 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Housing in the Seventies , 
p. 123. 

30 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, "Highlights of HDD's 
Proposed 1979 Budget," HUD Newsletter , (Washington, D.C.: HUD Publications 
and Information Division, February 6, 1978). 

31 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Housing in the Seventies . 
p. 123. 

32 Ibid ., p. 154. 

33 Chester W. Hartman, Housing and Social Policy , (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 
1975), p. 117. Hartman notes that roadblocks to the Brooke Amendment provi- 
sions were initiated by HUD and later supported the Nixon Administration 
Office of Management and Budget, which created even greater chaos and stress 
within the public housing program. Hartman adds that these difficulties 
were due in part to a "belated realization" of the real cost of implementing 
the Brooke Amendments — that is, to subsidize the true costs of providing 
decent housing for low- income families. 



15 



34 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Housing in the Seventies , 
p. 123. 

35 Edward Silverman, "Coimiunity Development - Title I of the Housing and 
Coranunity Development Act of 1974," Journal of Housing . (August 1974), 
p. 350. 

36 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, HUD Programs , (Washington, 
D.C. : HUD Office of Public Affairs, 1977), p. 39. 

37 Abrams, The Future of Housing , p. 261. 

38 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Federal Register , 
"Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program — Existing Housing," Part IV, 
(Washington, D.C: GPO, Thursday, May 13, 1976), p. 19885. 

39 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developnent, Final Report of the Task 
Force on Tenant Participation in the Management of Low-Income Housing , 
(Washington, D.cTl HUD, 1978, p. 1. 



16 



CHAPTER III 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL HOUSING AUTHORITIES 

The United States Housing Act of 1937 provided that any "public housing 
agency" (including a city, county, or village) could receive federal funds 
with which to operate low-rent housing and to clear slums. The traditional 
procedure, however, has been to create a separate local entity, a local 
housing authority. In November 1978, there were approximately 3,000 public 
housing authorities in the United States and approximately 14,000 public 
housing projects. ^1) 

The Origin of Local Hdusina; Authorities 

The introduction of the local housing authority into the organizational 
structure of the low-rent housing and slum clearance program in 1935 came 
largely as a result of local government pressure towards decentralization. 
This pressure was strengthened significantly by a Federal Court of Appeals 
decision in the United States v. Certain Land in the City of Louisville, 
Jefferson County, Kentucky. That decision declared unconstitutional the 
use of eminent domain in order to clear slums and build low-rent housing. ^2) 
This decision resulted in reorganization of the program in order to increase 
state and local participation. States were required to enact enabling 
legislation authorizing local governments to create housing authorities 
which could develop, own and operate housing projects. These local housing 
authorities would operate, in effect, as public corporations. 

Freedom from political interference was the main reason for incorporating 
local housing authorities. ( 3) This situation was due to the prominence of 
the "good government" consciousness during the 1930s. This consciousness 
held that a quasi-autoncmous citizen-governed agency would be more efficient 
and "public-regarding," less corrupt and less subject to political influence 
than other agency forms, such as a department directly under the control of 
the mayor or local governing body.(^) There was also strong belief that 
housing authorities would provide continuity of operations during a change 
of administrations in city government. Incorporating the local housing 
authorities was also thought to be advantageous because the constitutional 
debt restrictions affecting cities could be circumvented. Furthermore, the 
ability of a public corporation to borrow money from private lenders was an 
additional reason for the incorporation of local housing authorities. The 
major ccmplaint against the corporate form was that too many separate 
entities had already been created and that as a result, elected officials 
did not have sufficient control. 

Following the program's reorganization, the participation of local govern- 
ments remained limited and the involvement of housing authorities was 
minimal. Protesting this minimal involvement, the American Federation of 
Housing Authorities joined several other organizations in a fight which 
ultimately led to the enactment of the United States Housing Act of 1937.^5) 

With the enactment of the Housing Act of 1937, the involvement of local 
housing authorities in the public housing program was substantially increased. 
The housing authority's responsibility for basic operational decisions 
(i.e., whether there would be public housing, how much, the type, its 
location, tenant selection, and other operational details) was finally 

17 



recognized. Funding was controlled by the federal goverrment who, as a 
result, retained the right to approve site selections, plans, tuilding 
costs, rentals, and other details. ^^) 

Public housing agencies (including housing authorities) are currently 
required to operate primarily vathin the context of State enabling legis- 
lation. This legislation establishes for the housing authority its powers 
and responsibilities including those of planning, financing, developing, 
and managing housing units. Responsibility for housing authority opera- 
tions is usually vested in a local board of canmiss loners. Federal assistance 
to housing authorities is implemented through an annual contribution contract. 
This contract delineates mutual responsibilities for the authority, the federal 
government, and the local governmental body. As a part of this contract the 
local government agrees to tax abatement for public housing properties, as well 
as provision of appropriate municipal services. ^"i^) However, housing authorities 
are generally required to nHke regular payments in LLeu of taxes. In addition 
to HUD, the Farmers' Home Administration (FmHA) is also involved in low-rent 
housing assistance. The RnHA provides loans and grants for housing authority 
operations aimed at providing low-rent housing for agricultural vrorkers only. 

Florida's Enabling Legislation 

In all states, the oiactment of enabling legislation is necessary for the 
creation of local housing authorities. Enabling legislation was enacted in 
Florida in 1937. Florida Statutes, Chapter 421.001-421.54 comprises Part I, 
Florida's Housing Authorities Law; Part II, Chapter 421.55 consists of 
Miscellaneous Provisions. 

In declaring provisions for the creation and operation of public housing 
authorities in the State of Florida, Florida Statutes, Chapter 421.02 cites 
two basic reasons: 1) the existence of both unsanitary and unsafe dwelling 
accommodations in which persons of low inccrae are often forced to live; and 
2) a shortage of safe and sanitary dwelling acccamnodations available at 
rents which persons of low income can afford. Based on these observations, 
Florida Statutes, Chapter 421.04 provides that a "...public body corporate 
and politic to be known as the 'Housing Authority' shall be created in each 
city or town with a population of more than 2,500." However, it is noted 
that the housing authority will exist inactively (in concept only) until 
such time as the "...governing body of the city, by proper resolution shall 
declare that there is need for an authority to function in such city." The 
determination as to whether there is such a need may be made either by the 
governing body on its own motion, or by the governing body upon the filing 
of a petition signed by 25 residents of the city (or the county, in the 
case of a county housing authority) declaring the existence of such a need. 

Otherwise, the governing body may adopt a resolution declaring the need for 
a housing authority if it finds that: 1) unsanitary or unsafe inhabited 
housing exists in the city; or 2) there is a shortage of safe or sanitary 
housing avcLilable in the city to persons of low income at affordable rental 
rates. 



18 



The area of operation in a city vdth a population of less than 25,000 is 
the city and the area within five (5) miles from its territorial boundaries. 
In a city vcLth a population of 25,000 or more the area' of operation for a 
housing authority is the city and the area within 10 miles from its juris- 
dictional boundaries. In the case of the larger cities, certain stipula- 
tions are applicable: 1) the area of operation cannot include any area 
which lies within the boundaries of another city; 2) the area of operation- 
cannot extend outside the boundaries of the county in which the city is 
located; and 3) the housing authority shall have no power or jurisdiction 
outside the county in which the city is located. In the case of county 
housing authorities, the area of operation includes all of the county for 
which the authority is created, except that portion of the county vAiich 
lies within the territorial boundaries of any city.^°) 

The basic powers of local housing authorities in Florida, according to 
Chapter 421.08, include the following: ^9) 

1) To sue and be sued; to have a seal; to have perpetual succession; 
to make and execute contracts and other necessary instruments. 

2) To prepare, carry cut, acquire, lease and operate housing projects; 
• to ix'ovide for construction, reconstruction, the improvement and 

repair cf housing projects. 

3) To arrange for the furnishing of services, privileges, works or 
facilities for a housing project or its tenants. 

4) Authority to lease or rent any dwellings or other facilities in a 
housing project; authority over rents or charges; and authority 

to own, hold and improve real and personal property; or to dispose 
of same. 

5) To invest any funds in property or securities. 

6) To investigate into living and housing conditions; to determine 
where slums exist; or shortage of dwelling units. 

7) To conduct examinations, investigations, to hear testimony; to 
administer oaths, issue subpoenas regarding natter material for 
its information. 

8) To exercise all or part cf combinations of its powers. 

The housing authority's chief organizational components consist of a board 
of commissioners and staff. As a policy-making body, virtually all legal 
and discretionary powers of the authority reside in its board of ccmmiss loners. 
Florida Statutes, Chapter 421.05 indicates that when an authority is created, 
"the mayor (the Governor in the case of a county housing authority) with 
the approval of the governing body, shall promptly appoint five (5) persons 
as commissioners...". Concerning their terms in office, it is specified 
that "Three (3) of the commissioners v4io are first appointed shall be 
designated to serve for terms of 1, 2, and 3 years respectively; and the 
remaining two... shall be designated to serve for tenns of 4 years each..,". 

19 



After the appointment of the initial five (5) comnissioners , eadi shall be 
appointed to a term of four (4) years in office. In the case of unexpired 
terms, the law, as recently amended, requires that such vacancies be filled 
by an appointment of the nayor with the approval of the governing body 
within 60 days after such vacancies occur. Chapter 421.05 further provides 
that "the nayor (the Governor in the case of county housing authority) with 
the concurrence of the governing body shall designate which of the ccm- 
missioners appointed shall be the first Chaiiman, but when the office... 
becomes vacant, the authority shall select a Chaiiman fran among its 
commissioners." For inefficiency or neglect of duty or misconduct in 
office, a commissioner nay be removed by the nayor (or Governor) with the 
concurrence of the governing body. Traditionally, state laws have not made 
provisions for canpensating commissioners, except for "necessary expenses, 
including traveling incurred in the discharge of his duties. "^^^^ This is 
closely related to the "good government" consciousness embodied in the ori- 
gin of housing authorities. 

While the board of comnissioners is the policy-making conponent of the 
authority, it is the responsibility of the board's staff, headed by an 
executive director, to administer the policies of the authority. The 
qualifications, duties, and compensation of all staff members are determined 
by the board of ccmmissioners . The Department of Conmunity Affairs is respon- 
sible for the State's role in the area of housing and urban development. 

The Functions of Local Housing Authorities 

There are at least five (5) broad areas of concern which are likely to be 
identified in most housing, authorities: 1) administrative (e.g., personnel 
and public relations); 2) legal (e.g., the interpretation of federal 
regulations, contract scrutiny, various aspects of land acquisition); 

3) management (e.g., tenant selection, tenant grievances, tenant services); 

4) finance Ti'.g., all fiscal matters, bookkeeping and acccuntipg): and 

5) technical (e.g., construction and maintenance of projects).^^'' ^ Depending 
upon the size of the housing authority, these concerns will be more or less 
visible and developed. However, they are basic matters which to some 
extent must be addressed. 

Traditionally, the role of the local housing authority has been to develop, 
own, and manage units (i.e., conventional public housing) specifically 
built for and exclusively occupied by low-income families. However, with 
the onset of programs like the "Turnkey Method" and Section 8 (see Chapter II) , 
housing authorities have begun to take on new roles. Also, the increasingly 
popular Section 8 program has expanded to the definition of "Public Housing 
Agency." As such, the local housing authority is not the only agency which 
can administer the activities under Section 8. Consequently, new avenues 
have evened up for the administration of public housing programs. 

The Inception of Public Housing in Palm Beach County 

The enactment of the Housing Act of 1937 encouraged the widespread passage 
of housing authority enabling legislation at the state level. This activity 
encouraged the widespread creation of local housing authorities throughout 
the country. The State of Florida passed enabling legislation in 1937.^^^^ 
It '/^as among the first states to participate in the federal public housing 
program. Consequently, the state paved the way for the creation of local 
housing authorities in all of its counties and municipal jurisdiction's. 



20 



The Vfest Palm Beach Housing Authority, incorporated in 1938, was the first 
housing authority created in Palm Beach County and the ninth housing authority 
created in the State of Florida. ^^3) This Authority's creation was initiated 
chiefly by local labor organizations. These labor groups were particularly 
instrumental in gathering the necessary statistics and other required 
information to cperationalize the authority. ^^^/ 

The City of West Palm Beach was by no msans unique in this method of develop- 
ing its authority. The involvement of organized labor groups was a national 
trend. Given the obvious benefits of housing construction, it is not 
difficult to understand vAiy labor was one of the biggest supporters of the 
public housing program. Also, in conformity with a national trend, the 
provision of bousing to families of low income, as a 'genuinely humanitarian 
gesture,' was only incidental to the motives of employment and econonic 
stimulation. 

One of the authority's biggest problems initially was finding suitable land 
upon which to build. The first land purchased was for the Dunbar Village 
Project, which was constructed between 1939 and 19^0. The second project, 
Southridge, was completed between 19^0 and 19^1. Construction later took 
place in the Westward Expansion Area between 7th Street and the Seaboard 
Railroad (now called the Twin Lakes Project). Finally, "scattered hemes" 
were built in Pleasant City. ^^5) 

Since the creation of the West Palm Beach Housir^ Authority, seven (7) 
other housing authorities have been created. In 19^7, both the Belle Glade 
and the Pahokee Housing Authorities were created. These authorities share 
the objective of meeting the ixiusing needs of families in the County's 
agricultural area. Operating under the Farmers Hone Administration, the 
Belle Glade Housing Authority is the only non-HUD affiliated authority in 
the County. ^-^"^ The Palm Beach County Housing Authority was created in 1969. 

This authority is primarily responsible for msetir^ the housing needs of 
low- income families in the unincorporated areas of the County. In 1970, 
the Delray Beach Housing Authority was created and in 1973, the Riviera 
BSach Housing Authority was created. While all of these hcusirg authorities 
are fully operational, there are two (2) others which are not. In 1977, 
the Boynton Beach Housing Authority \^s created. However, an Interlocal 
Agreement with the Palm Beach County Housing Authority provided the basis 
upon viiich the Boynton Beach Housing Authority's functions and objectives 
are carried out. (17) Activated in 1978, the Boca Raton Housing Authority has 
adopted By-Laws, has met all other organizational requirements, has been 
officially recognized by HUD with approval to pursue funding, but it has 
yet to declare itself officially operational . ^ ■'■2 ) 



21 



FOOTNOTES 



U,S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Final Report of 
the Task Force on Tenant Participation in the Management of Low- 
Income Housing , (V/ashington, D,C.: HUD, 197b), p. 3. 

U.S. Department of ffousing and Urban Development, Housing in the 
Seventies , (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1974), 
p. 9. 

Charles Abrams, The Future of Housing , (New Yoric: Harper & Bros., 
1946), p. 283. 



4 Ibid. 



5 Other instrumental groups include the National Public Hojsing Con- 
ference, the Labor Housing Conference, the National Association of 
Housing Officials, and the Regional Planners Association of America. 
Eugene Fadner Birch, "Wcman-Made America: The Case of Early Public 
Housing Policy," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 44, 
(April 1978), 136^:0^131 

6 Abrams, The Future of Housing , p. 259. 

7 HUD, Final Report of the Task Force on Tenant Participation , p. 41. 

8 Florida Statutes (1977), Chapter 421.03, p. 219. 

9 Florida Statutes , Chapter 421.08, p. 221. 

10 Florida Statutes (1978 Supplement), Chapter 421.05 revised, p. 476. 

11 Abrams, The Future of Housing , p. 293. 

12 State of Florida Department of Ccramunity Affairs, Housing in Florida 
Volume 5, (Tallahassee: 1973), p. 5. 

13 Interview with William E. Poland, West Palm Beach, Florida, 24 July 
1979. Mr. Poland served as a Ccmmissioner of West Palm Beach Housing 
Authority from August 1939 to April 1942 and as the Authority's 
Executive Director from April 1942 to July 1967. 

14 Ibid. 



15 Ibid. 



16 Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, Public Housing Authority 
Activity in Palm Beach County, 1979 , p. 13 • 

17 Ibid. , p. 23. 

18 Interview with Eric Williams, City of Boca Raton Ccramunity Develop- 
ment Division, Boca Raton, Florida, 27 September, 1979. 



22 



CHAPTER IV 
PUBLIC HOUSING IN PALM BEACH COUNTY 

The focus of this Chapter is an analysis of the seven (7) housing authorities 
operating within Palm Beach County. This analysis involves the developnent of a 
profile of each authority and a comparison of their ability to deliver adequate 
public housing. The authority profiles are based upon the following primary 
areas of concern: 1) Physical Characteristics which consist of location and 
size of housing projects; 2) Organizational Characteristics such as operational 
guidelines, and the structural ccraponents; 3) Financial Characteristics which 
analyze revenues and expenditures of the authorities; and, 4) Service 
Characteristics which address admission policies, and tenant services. 

The information presented in each profile was largely obtained from the execu- 
tive directors of the various authorities and from personnel designated by the 
executive director. Various documents such as by-laws, personnel and tenant 
policies, budgets, and other reports, obtained frcxn the housing authorities were 
also utilized. The type of information gathered, as well as the criteria for 
the analysis, are based on analysis procedures found in HUD's Low-Rent Housing 
Project Management Handbook and the research design of a 197^ Urban Institute 
Study, Management Performance in Public Housing . The latter study helped 
establish a comprehensive array of research variables for use in the authority 
profile and analysis. The data base utilized in the analysis was verified by 
on-site inspections of various housing authority projects. The four (4) major 
characteristics listed above constitute the format of each authority profile. 
These characteristics emerged out of a review of data as the most appropriate 
organizational format. The authorities are discussed in order of size of 
operation. Maps of each public housing project site are presented in the appen- 
dix of this report. 

West Palm Beach Housing Authority 

The City of West Palm Beach is situated in east central Palm Beach County. The 
1979 population estimate for the City was 65,220. The population is divided 
into whites, blacks and hispanics, each group comprising 7^%J 23% and 5* of the 
population respectively. The City's median income in 1969 was $8,381, while 
the comparable figure for Palm Beach County was $9,112. The median income in 
that same period for black families was $4,891 and $8,590 for Hispanic families. 
Families with inccme less than $5,000 comprised 26.3/6 of all families in the 
City, v^ile families with inccxne of $15,000 or more constituted 17.8/6 of all 
families. 

The City's housing needs are addressed from a broad perspective through a 
Carmunity Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program. The City's Housing Assistance 
Plan (HAP) establishes housing objectives, such as rehabilitation, public 
housing, or rent supplements, for the City's lower-inccrae households. This HAP 
enables the City to receive federal housing assistance funds. The City's CDBG 
Program has designated four (4) Neighborhood Strategy Areas (NSAs) upon which to 
concentrate its housing assistance programs (See FIGURE I). 



23 



NEIGHBORHOOD STRATEGY AREAS 
AND PUBLIC HOUSING SITES 



■1 



u 



,~^- 



^ 



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DUNBAR VILLAGE 



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EASANT CITY 



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SsOUTHRIDGE. : 



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NEIGHBORHOOD STRATEGY AREAS 

1. DUNBAR VILLAGE 

2. PLEASANT CITY 

3. PALM VIEW 

4. TWIN LAKES 



el 



<32> 



SOURCE: Area Planning Board of 

Palm Beach County, Derived 
From Local Community 
. Development, 1979. 



24 






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..-.♦...4. 






FIGUREI 



The West Palm Beach Housing Authority currently assists the Comnunity 
Development Program by providing ten (10) units for emergency housing. These 
units are leased on a monthly basis with Camnunity Development funds to provide 
temporary shelter for citizens viio are victims of fires, evictions, or social 
problems. The relationship between the Authority and the ODBC Program also 
calls for a joint land acquisition project. According to the plan, the CDBG 
Program is to provide $100,000 to assist the Authority in qualifying for a . 
$4 million HUD grant. Part of this grant is to be used in the acquisition of 
land on which to build additional housing for low to moderate income residents. 
It is anticipated that this land purchase 'will be realized by June 30, 1980, 

Physical Characteristics 

The West Palm Beach Housing Authority currently has 1 ,544 units under its 
management: 634 conventional units and 910 units under the Section 8 Housing • 
Assistance Payments Program. The 634 conventional units are divided between 
four (4) project sites (See FIGURE I). The canposition of available housing is 
depicted in TABLE 1. 

TABLE 1 

WEST PALM BEACH HOUSING AUTHORITY PROJECTS 





Eff. 


1 BR 


2 BR 3 


ER 4 


BR 


5 


BR b 


BR TOTAL 


Dunbar Village 


16 


70 


110 


50 


- 




- 


- 246 


Southridge 


36 


38 


48 


16 


- 




- 


- 138 


Twin Lakes 


- 


- 


8 


82 


24 




4 


- 118 


Pleasant City 


_ 


20 


85 


25 


_ 




2 


- 132 


TOTAL 
















634 



SOURCE: West Palm Beach Housing Authority, 1979. 

Dunbar Village, consisting of 246 units, was constructed between 1939 and 1940 
and is located at the intersection of 15th Street and Tamarind Avenue. The 
Dunbar site consists of duplexes and one and two-story concrete block structure 
(CBS) multi-family units. Visual inspection of the Project found the units in 
good external condition. Although open space is limited, landscaping at the 
Dunbar site is maintained. The Project is ccmpletely bordered by sidewalks, and 
access to the housing is provided by walkways. There are four (4) fenced-in 
play areas within the site each equipped with an assortment of playground hard- 
ware such as swings, slides, climbing bars, and merry-go-rounds. The Project 
also has basketball courts, a social hall, and off street parking. The Project 
is lighted so that steps and walkways are visible. Refuse collection is facili- 
tated by several dumpsters which are located within the site. Dunbar households 
can be categorized as small and medium size minority families. Tne presence of 
a few access ramps with railings suggests that some units have been designated 
for the handicapped. 



25 



The Southridge Project, the location of the Authority's central administrative 
office, consists of 138 units. It was built between 1940 and 1941 and is 
located at 3801 Georgia Avenue. The Southridge site consists of a mixture of 
duplexes, triplexes and multi-family units. These units are all ground level 
CBS structures which appear to be in good condition. The Project is landscaped 
and bordered by sidewalks with internal access provided by walkways. Off street 
parking is available and lighting appears adequate. Major recreation is pro- 
vided by a social hall located on the site. Several units have access ramps for 
the handi-capped. Most of the Southridge households consist of elderly white 
individuals sane of whom are handicapped. 

The Twin Lakes Project, consisting of 118 units, was constructed in 1961 and is 
located on 7th Street between Australian Avenue and the Seaboard Railroad. The 
Twin Lakes site consists of a mixture of single family detached and duplex 
units. These units are all ground level CBS structures which appear to be in 
good condition. The Project has adequate open space, is landscaped, and comple- 
tely sidewalked. Each unit has parking for at least one autcmobile and sane 
units also have access for the handicapped. The Project has a social hall, 
known as the 7th Street Recreation Center, which includes several offices of the 
Authority and a fenced-in play area. The play area is equipped with assorted 
playground hardware. A basketball court equipped with a set of bleachers is 
also available on the site. Several dumpsters located on the Project's ground 
facilitate refuse collection. 

The Project appears adequately lighted and is fenced-off on the east, north and 
south to protect the residents from any hazards associated with a small canal 
and a wooded area. The household types within the Project are generally medium 
to large minority families. The presence of a few access ramps indicate that 
sane units have been designed for the handicapped. 

In the Pleasant City area, there is currently a total of 132 units which are 
scattered fron north to south between l8th and 23rd Streets and fron east to 
west between U.S.??1 and the Florida East Coast Railroad. Construction on these 
units, which are CBS two-story quadraplexes , was conpleted in 1965. These units 
appear to be in good condition, although modernization is obviously needed. The 
ground^ surrounding many of these units are landscaped although several could 
use improvement. All of the streets on which the units are located have 
sidewalks with parking available on the street and in the rear of each 
structure. The designated recreation site is the Pleasant City Recreation 
Center. This center is fenced-in and has a basketball court and other 
playground hardware. The household types located ',d.thin the Pleasant City 
Project are primarily medium to large minority households. 

In addition to these 634 units of conventional public housing, the West Palm 
Beach Housing Authority also manages a total of 890 units under the Section 8 
Existing Program; 599 of these are currently active. Funding for the support of 
the remaining 291 units is available; however, leasable units are not currently 
available. These units are scattered throughout the conmunity with a total of 
514 located in the City's incorporated area and 85 located in the unincorporated 
area within ten (10) miles of the City's limits. 



26 



With respect to program development, the West Palm Beach Housing Authority has 
been directing most of its energies into plans for the construction of 113 con- 
ventional multi-family (3 to 5 bedroans) units. The executive director pointed 
out that, for the past 14 years, no multi-family units of public housing have 
been built within the City. It was also indicated that plans are being de- 
veloped for additional units for the elderly. 

The West Palm Beach Housing Authority is also pursuing other sources of funding 
for the further development of its social programs. Contacts have been made 
with the Florida Department of Aging, Florida Law Enforcement Assistance 
Administration, Florida Department of Conmunity Affairs, and United States 
Department of Health, Education and Welfare. 

Organizational Characteristics 

The by-laws of the West Palm Beach Housing Authority indicate that the 
Authority's basic organizational structure consists of a Board of Commissioners 
and its administrative staff. The officers of the Authority are the Board 
chairman, vice chairman and secretary (the executive director). 

The West Palm Beach City Conmission appoints the housing authority commissioners 
for a term of four (4) years. The Authority then elects a chairman and vice 
chainnan at its annual meeting from the commissioners. These officers hold 
office for one year or until successors are elected and qualified. The basic 
powers and responsibilities of all housing authorities are cited in Florida 
Statutes, Chapter 421.08 (See Chapter III, page 28). 

The Authority's executive director supervises the management and administration 
of the Authority. The executive director is also charged with the management of 
the Authority's housing projects as provided by Florida Statutes, Chapter 421.05 
and Section 10 of the Authority's by-laws. Personnel, in addition to the execu- 
tive director, may also be employed by the Authority. Three (3) types of 
meetings are provided for in the by-laws of the Authority: annual, regular and 
special meetings. In all meetings of the Authority, a quorum is obtained by the 
attendance of a majority of its five (5) commissioners. Voting on matters 
coming before the Authority is done by roll call. 

According to the executive director, the Authority's Board of Commissioners has 
an excellent relationship with the staff. The Board members are cooperative and 
attend meetings at regular intervals. 

The current executive director of the West Palm Beach Housing Authority has 
served in that capacity since 1973. He received training in public housing 
management as the Authority's assistant director and has since been certified by 
the National Association of Housing and Urban Developnent Officials as a 
qualified housing authority director. 

He is also a member of the Executive Committee of the Southeastern Regional 
Conference of the National Association of Housing and Urban Developnent 
Officials (NAHUDO). In addition to the executive director's national and state 
professional affiliations, locally, he is a member of the Southeast Florida 
Housing Authority Directors. 



27 



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28 



The staff of the West Palm Beach Housing Authority consists of 37 full-time 
employees (See FIGURE EL). Nineteen (19) members of the staff are minorities 
including one Indian, two (2) Hispanics and sixteen (16) blacks. There are also 
five (5) tenants on the staff, four (4) of whom are minorities. The Authority's 
legal assistance is provided through a local law firm. 

The current level of staff perfonnance seens satisfactory. However, a need was 
expressed for several additional positions in the areas of maintenance and 
social services since the executive director believes that the current level of 
service is inadequate. The staff's ability to perform daily processing func- 
tions will be substantially improved when the new data processing systsn, 
Gurroitly being developed, is canpleted. Electronic data processing capability 
will reduce considerably the number of manhours currently required to perform 
routine postings, record maintenance, rent collection and other processing. . 
Satisfaction was expressed with the quality of the public housing personnel 
training programs which are currently available through HUD and NAHUEO. Due to 
the lack of funds and ccxnpetitive pay scales, however, the Authority's turnover 
rate is high, especially with respect to administrative and maintenance 
positions. 

A generally high degree of dependence upon the HUD Area Office in Jacksonville 
was acknowledged particularly since HUD's role includes interpreting the various 
housing laws pursuant to the issuance of program regulations. HUD's annual 
management review, occupancy review, engineering surveys, and required annual 
audits, were regarded by the executive director as highly positive evaluative 
concepts. HUD's assistance, however, has been liElted in the past several 
months due to a reorganization within the federal agency. The Authority has 
also been confronted with a particular problem in that the HUD Area Office has 
been understaffed in site appraisers. This situation, according to the execu- 
tive director, has caused the loss of nine (9) of the past twelve (12) months on 
the implanentation of a new housing project. 

The issue of tenant participation in both policy-making and management is highly 
praninent throughout the country. On the question of tenant participation in 
policy-making, the executive director expressed uncertainty as to whether there 
has ever been a need for formal tenant involvement such as membership on the 
Authority's Board of Commissioners. He felt that this is a question for the 
Board to decide and added that, if the Board ever decided there was a need for 
tenant participation, he would have no objections. On the question of tenant 
participation in managsnent, the executive director indicated that it is, in his 
opinion, a positive idea. He added that he is anticipating a mandate from HUD 
that 20% of a housing authority's staff should be tenants. Currently, 13.5^ of 
the West Palm Beach Housing Authority's staff are tenants. 

It is felt that public housing in the City of West Palm Beach is well accepted. 
This feeling of acceptance is largely attributed to the general physical 
appearance of the Authority's projects. In addition to regular maintenance 
efforts, it is believed that modernization programs at the Dunbar, Southridge 
and Twin Lakes sites have also made significant contributions toward extending 
the life and enhancing the appearance of the projects. The Authority has also 
requested $1 million in modernization funds from HUD for the Pleasant City 
Project. 



29 



The executive director indicated that, in the day-to-day managonent of the West 
Palm Beach Housing Authority, the majority of his time is divided between the 
two (2) major areas of administration (personnel management and public 
relations) and program development. The area of program development requires 
the executive director to maintain extensive contact with HUD and City 
officials, including various other City and County departments. 

Financial Characteristics 

An operating budget is developed each fiscal year for the Authority's conven- 
tional public housing and Section 8 Housing programs. The Authority's conven- 
tional housing program's budgeted operating receipts and expenditures for fiscal 
years 1978, 1979 and 1980 are discussed in this section. The current operating 
budget for the Authority's Section 8 Existing. Housing Program is also discussed. 

The Authority's total operating receipts, excluding HUD's contributions, are 
largely conprised of rental income including excess utilities, interest, and 
undefined receipts. The Authority's total operating receipts were $475,650 in 
1978, $471,700 for the 1979 budget year and estimated at $510,500 for the 1980 
budget year. The total operating expenditures were $763,200 in 1978, $678,300 
for the 1979 budget year and $661,460 for the 1980 fiscal year. These figures 
suggest a trend of decreasing operating costs: an 11.13% decrease frcm 1978 to 
1979 and a 2.49% decrease frcm 1979 to 1980. 

Total operating expenditures are broken down into three (3) categories: 
routine, non-routine and other. Routine expenditures include the following: 
1) Administration (salaries and other expenses); 2) Tenant Services (salaries, 
recreation, publications, contract costs, training, and other programs); 
3) Utilities (utility costs and labor); 4) Ordinary Maintenance and Operations 
(labor, materials and contract costs); 5) Protective Services (labor, materials 
and contract costs); and 6) General Expenses (insurance payments in lieu of 
taxes, terminal leave payments, employees benefit contributions, and collections 
of leases). (See TABLE 2) 

TABLE 2 

ROUTINE EXPENDITURES: ^CST PALM BEACH HOUSING AUTHORITY 





(In Percent) 














1978 


1979 


1980 


Administration 




19.19 


21, 


.81 


22, 


.37 


Tenant Services 




1.64 


1, 


.80 




.32 


Utilities 




20.75 


19. 


.06 


19 


.61 


Ordinary Maintenance 


& Operation 


43.58 


42, 


.50 


40, 


.66 


Protective Services 




0.00 


0, 


.00 




.03 


General Expenses 




14.81 


14, 


.80 


16, 


.98 



TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 

SOURCE: West Palm Beach Housing Authority, 1979. 



30 



Routine expenditures constitute 87^ of the budgeted operating expenditures in 
1978, and 97^ in both 1979 and 1980. 

Non-routine expenditures include extraordinary expenses, replacement of equip- 
ment, and additions (See TABLE 3). Non-routine expenditures constituted 3% of 
the budgeted total operating expenditure in 1978, 1979 and for 198O. 

TABLE 3 

NON-ROUTINE EXPENDITURES: WEST PALM BEACH HOUSING AUTHORITY 

rin Percent) 

1978 1979 1980 

Extraordinary Maintenance 19.^9 0.00 20.23 
Replacement of Equipment 51.69 100.00 63.93 
Additions 28.81 0.00 15.82 

TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 

SOURCE: West Palm Beach Housing Authority, 1979. 

The Authority estimated that the deficit prior to the HUD contributions 
(i.e., an operating subsidy) was 37.67^ for 1978, 30.46^ for 1979, and 22.82* 
for 1980. These figures suggest a trend of decreasing deficits. Operating sub- 
sidy was initially authorized by the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1969. 
Currently, these funds are being provided through a mechanism known as the 
Performance Funding System (PFS). The PFS is designed to provide the amount of 
operating subsidy which would be needed for well-managed projects. The amount 
of subsidy is determined by the difference between the Authority's projected 
expenses and its projected operating income. Thus, the HUD subsidy can be 
utilized to dissolve a projected deficit. At the same time, however, part or 
all of the subsidy may be utilized to augment an authority's operating reserve, 
-although the PFS does not specifically provide operating subsidy for this 
purpose. 

A major problem between the Authority and its tenants involves delinquent rents. 
Four (4) years ago, delinquent rates were less than 3% of the total rent 
receipts of the Authority. Uncollectable rents have currently reached a level 
of 20^. This is considered very high. A goal of $15,000 has been set for 
collection of outstanding rents. It was indicated that any of the $20,000 in 
outstanding rents which cannot be collected will be written off as an uncollec- 
table expense. The Authority implanented a new rent collection policy effective 
June 1979. 



31 



The Authority's Section 8 Existing Housing Program budget is prepared and sub- 
mitted to HUD as an estimate of total required annual contributions to operate 
the program. The contributions from HUD are largely passed on to private 
landlords in the form of a Housing Assistance Program while a small portion is 
retained by the Authority to cover the cost of administering the program. 

The format of the Section 8 budget consists of the maximum annual contributions 
available, including any reserve funds from the previous fiscal year and an 
estimate of required annual contributions to operate the program. 

An estimated total annual contributions available is canputed as the sum of the 
maximum annual contributions authorized plus an estimated account balance 
(reserve) at the end of the current fiscal year. The Authority's estimate of 
required annual contributions for fiscal year 198O was canputed as the sum of 
the following expenses: 1) housing assistance' payments, 2) an administrative 
fee, 3) the cost of an audit by an independent pii)lic accountant, 4) a prelimi- 
nary administrative expense, and 5) an expense for non-expendable equipment. 

In fiscal year 198O, funding in excess of $2 million is available for use in the 
Authority's Section 8 Existing Housing Program. However, the Authority is 
currently experiencing some difficulty in fully utilizirig these funds due to a 
shortage of available units for leasing. 

Service Characteristics 

The West Palm Beach Housing Authority serves approximately 634 households 
through its conventional public housing program. Tnese households were admitted 
to the Public Housing Program according to established admission policies and 
procedures. Within the admission policies, basic requirements such as eligi- 
bility and tenant selection criteria, occupancy standards, and provisions for 
the leasing of dwelling units are addressed. Applicants must satisfy prescribed 
socio-economic eligibility requirements before the Authority will consider then 
as tenants. 

The Authority's order of preferences is applied according to a monthly rent 
range schedule. The number of families to be allocated to each range is shown 
in TABLE 4. 

TABLE 4 
RENT ALLOCATIONS: WEST PALM BEACH HOUSDIG AUTHORITY 



Ranges of Gross 


Percent of FRmilies tr> be 


Rents (Dollars) 


Allocated Per Range 


$ 00-34 


10 


35 - 49 


20 


50 - 64 


20 


65 - 74 


20 


75 - 89 


20 


90 + over 


10 



SOURCE: West Palm Beach Housing Authority, 1979. 

32 



First preference in tenant selection is given to displaced families. Among 
these families, preference is given to families of disabled veterans, followed 
by families of deceased veterans or servicanen, then to families of other 
veterans or servicemen, and then to other displaced families. Second preference 
is given to families of veterans or servicemen not qualifying as displaced. 
Third preference is given to families of two (2) or more persons or a single 
person qualified as being elderly because of age or disability. Fourth pre- 
ference is given to single non-elderly displaced persons and single handicapped 
persons. Within each preference group, preference is given to families having 
the most urgent housing need at the time in which their application for 
admission is made. The initial offering is made to the Authority's lease 
program, and subsequent offerings are for the project having the largest number 
of vacancies. To avoid overcrowding and wasted space, dwellings are leased in 
accordance with the following occupancy standards: 

TABLE 5 
XCDPANCY STANDARDS: WEST PALM BEACH HOUSDIG AUTHORITY 





Number of Persons 


Number of Bedrooms 


Minimum 


Maximum 


1 


1 


3 


2 


2 


5 


3 


4 


7 


4 


7 


9 


5 


9 


12 



SOURCE: West Palm Beach Housing Authority, 1979. 

To facilitate the leasing of dwelling units, a lease agreement is entered into 
betweoi the Authority and each of its tenant families. The lease is to be kept 
current and is to reflect the rent being charged, unit occupied and the con- 
ditions governing occupancy, including provisions for termination. 

Currently, the Authority's waiting list for conventional units consists of over 
250 families. The executive director estimates that in order to satisfy the 
current needs within the City, the total Public Housing Program should be four 
(4) to five (5) times larger than it is at present. 

The executive director indicated that up to the present time there have been no 
grievance hearings. According to the Authority's grievance procedure, all ■ 
grievances and ccraplaints are first presented to the central office where they 
are discussed informally and, if possible, settled without a hearing. If a 
complaint should require a hearing, a written request is made to the Authority. 
This request is then submitted to a hearing panel. The hearing panel consists 
of five (5) members — two (2) tenants, selected by the tenant governing body, two 
(2) members appointed by the Authority and one impartial or disinterested 
member. The chairman of the hearing panel is elected by the members appointed 
to the panel. 



33 



In-1972, tenant organizations were initiated for all the projects. Only the 
organization at the Southridge Project is stiLl active. This organization is 
chartered as non-profit and comprises over 100 members. An attanpt, however, is 
currently being sponsored through the Palm Beach County Ccmmunity Action Council 
to reactivate the organizations for the other projects. 

While the executive director acknowledged that the current level and variety of 
services provided to tenants are inadequate (largely due to insufficient funds), 
several services are being provided through both public and private non-profit 
agencies within the ccmmunity. Services provided include tutorial assistance, 
site-seeing tours for elderly residents, summer camp programs, and child day 
care. 

The existing relationship between the Authority and various ccmmunity organiza- 
tions and public agencies is primarily due to .the efforts of the Mthority's 
social service program coordinator. All of the activities initiated through 
this office are intended to benefit all of the projects within the Authority. 
However, most of the current programs and activities cater only to the young 
since they were developed during the time that the program coordinator was 
director of the 7th Street Recreation Center and was primarily responsible for 
the Twin Lakes Project. These programs and activities include flag football, 
cheerleading , basketball, track, softball, swimming, tennis, racquetball, 
banquets, parties, dances. Boy and Girl Scout programs, and landscaping 
contests. Throu^ the efforts of the program coordinator, practically all the 
sporting equipment is donated by local retailers. The social service program 
coordinator currently has the task of counselling and developing activities that 
benefit all the projects, particularly the Southridge Project where the tenants 
are all elderly. Although provision for the trar^portation of tenants to medi- 
cal and other social services is non-existent, plans are being developed for an 
adult day care center. 

The maintenance program of the West Palm Beach Housing Authority applies only to 
its conventional units. This program is aimed primarily toward the upkeep of 
these units, including appliances and electrical and plumbing fixtures. In the 
case of occupied units, the nost common service required involves window and 
screen replacements, refrigerator and stove repairs, and minor plumbing 
probleTms. Out of each week, Monday has the heaviest influx of service requests. 

The Authority has three (3) maintenance mechanics (a general repairman, a car- 
penter and a plumber) on 24-hour call. Immediately after each vacancy, the unit 
is cleaned, painted and fumigated. The preparation of vacant units for occu- 
pancy takes priority over non-emergency repairs in occupied units. Due to an 
unusually high number of evictions relative to the problem of delinquent rents, 
maintenance personnel are currently spending a large amount of time preparing 
vacant units for occupancy. This situation is causing a growing backlog of nany 
non-emergency service requests. In the case of requests for inside painting, 
tenants can be supplied paint and do the work thenselves if they so desire. 

Ground maintenance (except lawn trimming) in the Dunbar Village, Southridge and 
Twin Lakes Projects is the responsibility of the tenants. Dunbar Village is the 
headquarters of the maintenance personnel. The executive director indicated 
that, although some of the buildings are old, they have survived well. He 
acknowledged, however, that major upgrading is necessary in many of the 
projects. 

34 



It is felt that public housing in the City of West Palra Beach is well accepted. 
This feeling of acceptance is largely attributed to the general physical 
appearance of the Authority's projects. In addition to regular nnintenance 
efforts, it is believed that modernization programs at the Dunbar, Southridge 
and Twin Lakes sites have also made significant contributions toward extending 
the life and enhancing the appearance of the projects. The Authority has also 
r'^eqaestsd $1 million in lODdernizatioa Fands from HUD for the Pleasant City 
Project . 

In addition to a full-time maintenance program, the West Palm Beach Housing 
Authority also takes neasures periodically to improve the safety and security of 
the projects. The executive director noted that given the relatively high den- 
sity levels in some of the projects it would seem that violence would be a major 
problem; however, disturbances are rare. 

A safety and security consultant was recently hired to make recommendations for 
improvement, some of which have been implemented. Improvements made at Dunbar 
Village, Southridge and Twin Lakes include lighting systems for improved 
illumination, new hedging/trimming patterns to clear hidden places, remodelling 
to prevent congregations of people and the cutting of pathways through the 
projects. The executive director indicated that these measures have helped to 
curb vandalism, although the extent of the project's success has not yet been 
determined . 

Plans have also been made to correct the installation of doors and change the 
type of windows in the Twin Lakes Project in order to make it more secure. The 
executive director acknowledged that although several steps have been taken to 
improve the safety and security of these projects there is much more to be done. 

In addition to the 634 households served through its conventional public housing 
program, the West Palm Beach Housing Authority also serves 823 households 
through its Section 8 Housing Program. The Authority's Section 8 Program is 
governed by an Equal Opportunity Housing Plan (EOHP) and an Administrative Plan, 
both of which define the program's policies and procedures. Primarily, the EOHP 
is designed to demonstrate the Authority's intent to administer the program on a 
non-discriminatory basis in the selection of participating families and in the 
provision of services. The EOHP also addresses the Authority's intent to pro- 
mote a wide choice of housing opportunities of minorities and fenale-headed 
households. 

The EOHP also includes procedures for the briefing of certificate holders and a 
procedure by which to atld^ess discrimination against certificate holders. The 
Administrative Plan, in addition to outlining the Program's policies and proce- 
dures, defines the duties of the Section 8 staff and addresses complaints by 
families under contracts and evictions. 

For each household admitted certification of eligibility is detennined through 
an application interview. The applicant's income is the principal criteria 
followed by the applicant's current housing conditions. After eligibility 
certification, a Certificate of Family Participation is issued based ori trie 
following priorities: 

1) families displaced and disabled; 

2) first come basis: 

families living in substandard housing; 
families living in overcrowded conditions; and 
families paying over 25% of their net income for rent. 

35 



M r 4. ~ •*•' 7 / c 



OCEAN 







AJNHO^ AUONJH 



36 



As a goal at least 30^ of the Authority's Section 8 households will be families 
who qualify as very low-incone families. Subsequent to the issuance of a Certi- 
ficate of Family Participation, it is the family's responsibility to find 
suitable housing and to negotiate a lease with the landlord. Under HUD's 
•*Finders-PCeepers" policy, the .jnit the family is occupying at the time the cer- 
tificate is issued nny be eligible for Housing Assistance Payments if it quali- 
fies as Existing Housing. Upon request, the Authority provides assistance in 
finding units for families v4io, because of age, handicap or other reasons, are 
unable to locate suitable housing. Assistance is also provided to families vriio 
allege discrimination. Families are given a copy of the standard housing form 
which notes the criteria for acceptable housing to aid them in identifying 
suitable housing. After approving the unit and the lease, the Authority exe- 
cutes a Housing Assistance Payments Contract. Immediately prior to the rent due 
date, the Housing Assistance Payment is mailed to the landlord. The Housing 
Assistance Payment covers the difference between the Contract Rent and the por- 
tion payable by the family. The eligibility of elderly families is recertified 
biannual 1y. The eligibility of non-elderly families is recertified on an annual 
basis. 

The grievance procedure available to tenants under conventional public housing 
programs is not available to tenants under Section 8. Tenants under the Section 
8 Program are instructed to notify the Authority if they should have a complaint 
against the landlord for non-compliance with the lease or contract. After 
receiving such notice and an investigation is conducted which determines that 
the landlord is in non-compliance with the contract or lease, the landlord is 
notified by the Authority in writing as to the results of the investigation and 
the need to take corrective action. Every possible effort is nade by the 
Authority to settle the conplaint without the Authority exercising its option of 
terminating the Housing Assistance Payment and relocating the family, ^.^liile 
tenant organizations are provided for residents in conventional public housing, 
HUD guidelines do not provide for tenant organizations for Section 8 Existing 
Housing Program residents. 

The Section 8 Program also does not provide for any social or recreational ser- 
vices or facilities for tenants. The landlord is obligated to provide only 
those services, maintenance, safety features, and utilities agreed upon under 
the fiA? contract. The landlord is also subject to the conditions and provisions 
of Florida's Landlord and Tenant Law, F.S. 83. 

palm Beach County Housing Authority 

Palm Beach County contains thirty-eight (38) political jurisdictions: Thirty- 
seven (37) municipalities and the unincorporated County. On April 1, 1979, the 
County's population was estimated at 564,950. In 1970, 18^ of the County's 
population was black, 4% was Hispanic, and lS% of the population was white. 
Median income for families in Palm Beach Co«inty ;>as $9,112 in 1970 ($17,000 in 
1979). Median family income for black families was substantially lower in 1970 
at $5,153. In 1979, there was an estimated total of 255,740 dwelling units in 
Palm Beach County. 

There are^four (4) CDBG recipients within Palm Beach County: the Cities of West 
Palm Beach, Boca Raton, and Belle Glade and the urban county area of Palm Beach 
County (twenty- four (24) municipalities and the unincorporated area). The Palm 

37 



Beach County (urban County area) CDBG Program addresses housing needs in the 
County from a broad perspective. The County's HAP establishes housing objec- 
tives such as rehabilitation, public housing and rent supplements for the 
County's lower-income households. The County's CDBG Program has designated 
thirteen (13) Neighborhood Strategy Areas (NSA) upon which to concentrate its 
housing assistance programs (See FIGURE III). 

Presently, the Palm Beach County Housing Authority is directly affiliated 
(i.e., joint program development, as well as input into the development of the 
HAP) with the Palm Beach County CDBG Program. As an example of coordination, 
the Palm Beach County Housing Authority, a private developer, and the County 
CDBG Program are jointly oigaged in an effort to accelerate the availability of 
housing in the Boynton Beach NSA. The Housing Authority has received HUD fund- 
ing in the amount of $3.2 million for a Conventional Substantial Reh^ilitation 
Program for the rehabilitation of 100 units and a private developer has applied 
for funding under the Section 8 New Construction Program to build 93 units. 
Necessary capital improvements (e.g., curb and gutter improvements, street 
paving, sidewalk construction, paiics, drainage, sewer, and water distribution 
mechanisms, etc.), for the rehabilitation program, are to be provided by the 
County Authority with assistance frcm the County CDBG Program. 

Physical Characteristics 

The Palm Beach County Housing Authority currently has 1 ,051 units under its 
management: 80 conventional units under the Section 8 New Construction Program, 
200 units under Section 23, and 771 units under the Section 8 Existing Housing 
Program (See TABLE 6). 

The Section 8 New Construction units ccmprise a project located in the unincor- 
porated area of V/est Palm Beach at 4921 Wedgewood Vfey. The Wedgewood Project is 
not owned but is instead only nanaged by the Authority. The management of these 
units is based on a HUD approved management contract between the Authority and 
the owners. The site's Phase I development is owned by Palm Beach Associates 
Limited and the Phase II development is amed by Wedgewood Associates. 

Wedgewood consists of efficiency and one-bedroaji units for the elderly. 
Phase I, was ccrapleted in February 1978. Phase II, consisting was ccmpleted in 
May 1979. Visual inspection of the site found the units in good external 
condition. The project is landscaped with an abundance of open space. Internal 
access to housing is provided by wallcways. 

Off street parking, including parking for the handicapiDed , is available and 
lighting appears adequate. Major recreation is facilitated by a shuffleboard 
court and a social hall located on the grounds. Several dumpsters are located 
on the grounds for refuse collection. A laundry room is available in both 
phases. Security measures at the Wedgewood site include an emergency system 
consisting of emergency alarms and smoke detectors in each unit. Security is 
also enhanced by several locking doors at various entrances to the two (2) 
buildings. Most of the Vfedgewood households consist of elderly white 
individuals . 

The Authority's Section 23 units are divided between two (2) sites. One site is 
located in the ijriincorporated area of West PaL-n Baacri <it Uo95 Dyson Circle North 
aind the other site is located within the City Limits of South Bay at 1702 Ilex 
Court. The distribution of unit sizes at each site is reflected in TAa.E 7. 



38 



TABLE 6 
PALM BEACH COUNTY HOUSUIG AUTHORITY 









NUMBER OF DWKIJ.TNG IINTTS 












Units in 


Units in 


Dwelling 
Unit Sizes 


TOTAL 




Household Types 


Incorporated 
Area 


Unincorporated 
Area 


1,051 


Elderly 


HandicaoDed 


Minorlt:^ 


Eff. 










71 


^ 


1-BR 










191 


21 


2-BR 










164 


36 


3-BR 










85 


54 • 


4-BR 










13 


5 


5-BR 










- 


> 


6-BR 










- 


- 


TOTAL 


*771 


166 


- 


402 


537 


119 


Eff. 










. 


. 


1-BR 


50 


48 


2 




. 


50 


2-BR 


24 








12 


12 


3-BR 


50 








20 


30 


M-BR 


64 








28 


36 


5-BR 


12 








6 


6 


6-BR 


- 








- 


- 


TOTAL 


200 


48 


2 


bb 


bt 


134 


Eff. 


30 


30 


3 






30 


1-BR • 


18 


18 








18 


2-BR 


16 










16 


3-BR 


16 










16 


U-BR 


— 










« 


5-BR 


— 










- 


6-BR 


- 










- 


TOTAL 


8o 


48 


3 


5 


- 


80 



Source: Palm Beach County Housing Authority, 1980. 

* Funding available for 115 additional units viiich are presently not under contract, 



39 



TABLE 7 






PALM BEACH COUNTY SECTION 23 UNITS 






Eff . 1 BR 2 BR 3 BR 4 BR 5 BR 


6 


BR TOTAL 


West Palm Beach - 50 12 30 36 6 




- 134 


South Bay - - 12 20 28 6 




66 


TOTAL 




200 



Source: Palm Beach County Housing Authority, 1980. 

The Dyson Circle site is canprised of 134 units consisting of townhouses and 
two three-story structures for the elderly. Development of this site was 
completed in April 1975. Visual inspection of the site found the units in good 
external condition. The project has adequate open space, is landscaped, and is 
bordered by sidewalks. Off street parking is available and several dumpsters 
located within the project facilitate refuse collection. Recreational facili- 
ties located on the grounds include a social hall and a basketball court. 
Lighting appears adequate and public telephones are also available. The Dyson 
Circle households are small, medium and large in size. These families consist 
of a mixture of white and minority persons. 

The South Bay site is canprised of 66 townhouse units all of which appear to be 
in good condition. Development of this site was completed in 1975. Ihe project 
has abundant open space, is landscaped, and is bordered by sidewalks. Off street 
parking -is available and several dumpsters are available on the site for refuse 
collection. Recreational facilities at the South Bay project also include a 
social hall and a basketball court. Adequate lighting and public telephones are 
also available. The project's eastern border partially consists of an open 
ditch which represents a potentially hazardous area. Most of the households at 
the South Bay site are minority families, and, as reflected in TAH.E 7, are 
medium in size. 

As a principal condition to the Authority's development of a public housirg pro- 
ject within the corporate limits of the City of South Bay, it was necessary for 
the City to create a housing authority. Such a step was necessary due to a 
requirement in the law prohibiting a housing authority from entering the cor- 
porate boundaries of any niunicipality except by invitation frcm a housing 
authority within that municipality. However, that law was amended in 1978 to 
provide for direct cooperation between housing authorities and local 
governments. The South Bay Housing Authority was created only to facilitate 
public housing development by the Palm Beach County Housing Authority t>athin the 
City corporate limits. The South Bay Housing Authority has never operated any 
units and it currently has a Board of Conmiss loners. The Authority essentially 
exists on paper only. 



40 



In addition to the units already discussed, the Palm Beach Ccunty Hcusirig 
Authority also manages a total of 771 units under the Section 8 Existirg Housing 
Program; 656 of these are currently active. Funding exists to support the 
remaining 100 units; however, leasable units are not currently available. The 
active units are scattered throu^out both the unincorporated, as well as some 
incorporated areas of the County. Since the area of operation for the Palm 
Beach County Housing Authority is statutorily limited to the unincorporated 
areas of the County, aatrance into the incorporated area of any municipal juris- 
diction for the purpose of providing Section 8 Housing Assistance payments 
requires the execution of an interlocal agresnent between the Authority and the 
municipality or its housing authority. The Palm Beach County Housing Authority 
has executed Interlocal Agreements with the Housing Authority of Delray Beach, 
Boynton Beach, Riviera Beach, and the City of Lake Worth. As a major stipula- 
tion in the Interlocal Agreonent between housing authorities, one authority can 
enter the operating area of the other only after it has reached its leasing 
capacity (See TABLES 8 and 9). 



TABLE 8 
PALM BEACH COUNTY SECTION 8 EXISTING UNITS LOCATED IN INCORPORATED AREAS 





Eff. 


1 BR 


2 BR 


3 BR 


4 BR 


5 BR 


T 


BR TOTAL 


Delray 


58 


108 


34 


- 


- 


- 




- . 200 


Boynton 


1 


18 


39 


34 


6 


- 




- 98 


T.ake Worth 


11 


48 


37 


- 


- 


- 




- 96 


Riviera 


3 


21 


58 


54 


7 


_ 




- 143 


TOTAL 


73 


195 


168 


88 


13 






537 



Source: Palm Beach County Housing Authority, 1980. 

TABLE 9 
PALM BEACH COUNTY SECTION 8 EXISTUIG UNITS LOCATED IN UNINCORPORATED AREAS 





Eff. 


1 BR 


2 BR. 


3 BR 


k 


BR 


5 


BR 


T 


BR 


TOTAL 


Boca Raton 


- 


- 


1 


- 




- 




- 




- 


1 


Lantana 


- 


3 


3 


2 




1 




- 




- 


9 


Lake Worth 


- 


- 


- 


22 




- 




- 




- 


22 


West Palm Beach 


- 


17 


31 


27 




- 




- 




- 


75 


Lake Park 


- 


2 


3 


4 




2 




- 




- 


11 


Loxahatchee 


. 


. 


_ 


_ 




1 




_ 




^ 


1 


TOTAL 




22 


38 


55 




k 










119 



Source: Palm Beach County Housing Authority, 1980, 

41 



"As: noted in Chapter III, the Palm Beach Coanty Roasing Authoril;y al^o perforra-s 
Iha -staff function for the Boynton Beach Hotising Authority. This relationship 
is based on a cooperation agreement between these authorities including the City 
of Boynton Beach. Serving as the staff of the Boynton Beach Housing Authority, 
the Palm Beach County Housing Authority is obligated to perform all of the tasks 
essential to providing public housing. 

With respect to program development, the Palm Beach Cainty Housing Authority 
over the past several mDnths has been focusing its attention into three (3) 
directions. First, the Authority is presently working vdth a private develcper 
on plans which call for the construction of 93 units in Boynton Beach. Flinding 
for this project is being sought under the Section 8 New Construction Program. 
Secondly, the Authority has been funded for the construction of 150 units of 
conventional public housing. This project is presently at the stage of site- 
selection which is to be followed by HUD's site appraisal and approval. The 
plans call for construction of 75 units within a lower-incane area and 
constructing another 75 units outside lower-incane areas. Thirdly, the 
Authority's plans for the substantial rehabilitation of 100 units in Boynton 
Beach are scheduled to begin in February 198O. As noted earlier, this project 
has been funded by HJD in the amount of $3.2 million. 

Organizational Characteristics 

The 'oy-laws of the Palm Beach County Housing Authority indicate that the 
Authority's basic organizational structure consists of a Board of Commissioners 
and its administrative staff. The officers of the Authority are the board 
chainnan, vice diairman and secretary (executive director). 

The Governor appoints the housing authority commissioners for a term of four (4) 
years. The Authority then elects a chairman and vice chairman at its annual 
meeting fraa among the commissioners. These officers hold office for one year 
or until successors are elected and qualified. The basic powers and respon- 
sibilities of all housing authorities are cited in Florida Statutes, Chapter 
421.08 (See Chapter HI, Page 28). 

The manner in which comnissioners for county housixig authorities are appointed 
could 'change in the near future. Currently pending in the Florida Legislature 
is House Bill 448. This Bill provides for the appointment and removal of county 
housing authority ccmmissioners by the Board of County Comnissioners, rather 
than the Governor. Essentially, this diange would reflect a decentralization of 
decision-making authority in this area of concern. 

The executive director, who is appointed by the Authority, is responsible for 
keeping the Authority's records and recording votes and minutes frcm all 
meetings of the Authority. The executive director also supervises the manage- 
ment and administration of the Authority, including its housing projects. 
Personnel, in addition to the executive director, may also be employed by the 
Authority. Three (3) types of meetings are provided for in the by-laws of the 
Authority: annual, regular and special meetings. In all meetings of the 
Authority, a quorum is obtained by the attendance of a majority of its five (5) 
commissioners. Voting on matters ccming before the Authority is done by roll 
call. 



42 






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-According to the executive director, the Authority's Board of Conmissioners has 
an excellent relationship with the staff. Particular satisfaction was expressed 
at the generally high levels of education among the Camrri ssioners in addition to 
their dedication. 

The current executive director of the Palm Beach County Housing Authority has 
served in that capacity since 1975. His prior experience was in the construc- 
tion indi;istry. The executive director is currently a member of the National 
Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials, and the Florida Association 
of Housing and Redevelopment Officials.. In addition to the executive director's 
national and staff professional affiliations, he is locally a member of the 
Southeast Florida Housing Authority Directors. He holds the position of 
treasurer in thdLs organization. 

The staff of the Palm Beach County Housing Authority consists of twenty-five 
(25) permanent flill-time employees and an allocation of fifteen (15) tanporary 
full-time employees frcm the CETA Program (See FIGURE lY). Currently 46^ of the 
staff are minorities. At the present time, former tenants ccmprise 40^ of the 
Authority's staff. The Authority's legal assistance is provided thrcugh a local 
law firm. 

Satisfaction was expressed with the current level of staff performance. 
However, a need was also expressed for several additional positions in the areas 
of maintenance and social services since the executive director believes that 
the current level of service is inadequate. Due to an expired contract, the 
maintenance division lost nine (9) CETA maintenance employees in September 1979. 

The performance at the present staff is enhanced both by in-house training as 
well as by the various workshops and training conferences sponsored by HUD and 
other organizations. The Authority has a low staff turnover rate. Staff mem- 
bers are involved to the greatest extent possible in decision-making. 

The quality of the staff's performance is also partly attributed to a successful 
relationship with HJD's Area Office in Jacksonville. It is felt that although 
HUD is presently short-staffed, the staff is coqaerative and helpful. 

The executive director had no objections on the issue of tenant participation in 
policy-making through membership on the Board of Ccmmissioners. He also did not 
have any objections on the issue of tenant participation in management thrcugh 
employment with the Authority. The executive director stated that many housing 
authority tenant organizations desire a "veto power" in relationship to housing 
authority policy-making and management. He explained that these organizations 
feel that tenants are more familiar with tenant needs and problems and that 
they, as a result, cu^t to be able to scrutinize amd censor policy and nnnage- 
ment decisions. Pointing to an implication that the average tenant is qualified 
to operate a housing authority, which the executive director feels is absolutely 
not the case, strong objection was expressed towards the "veto power" concept of 
tenant participation. 

In the day-to-day management of the Palm Beach County Housing Authority, the 
executive director divides his time primarily between the two (2) major areas of 
personnel management and program development. While most of the personnel imn- 
agement concerns are delegated to other administrators, the executive director 
is more directly and extensively involved in program development. Typically, in 
the early stages of any developoaent effort a great deal of time is spent working 

44 



directly with HUD officials. Thrcughout the effort, a great deal of time is 
spent with three (3) primary agencies of County government; the Housing and 
Conmunity Development Division, the Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, 
and the Department of Planning, Zoning and Building. 

Financial Characteristics 

An operating budget is developed each fiscal year for each of the Authority's 
two (2) housing programs. The Authority's Section 23 and Section 8 Existing 
Housing Programs budgeted operating receipts and expenditures (subsequent to 
HUD'S modifications) are discussed in this section. 

Total operating receipts from the Section 23 Program, excluding HUD's 
contribution, are largely comprised of dwelling and non-dwelling rental incane, 
excess utilities, interest and other income. Total operating receiots, as 
budgeted for fiscal years 1978, 1979 and 1980 were $179,544, $186,312 and 
$191,900, respectively. These figures represent a 3.64? increase between 1978 
and 1979 levels, and a slightly lower increase of 2.92* between the 1979 and 
1980 levels. 

Total operating expenditures were budgeted at $658,510 in 1978 and $675,530 in 

1979. Budgeted operating expenditures for 1980 totalled $692,830. These figures 
represent a 2.52$ increase from 1978 to 1979 and a 2.5* increase from 1979 to 

1980. Total operating expenditures are broken down into three (3) categories: 
routine, non-routine and other. 

Routine expenditures (as depicted in TABLE 10) include the following: 

1) Administration (salaries and other expenses); 2) Tenant Services (salaries, 

recreation, publications, contract costs, training and other programs); 

3) Utilities (utility costs and labor); 4) Ordinary Maintenance and Operations 

(labor, materials and contract costs); 5) Protective Services (labor, materials 

and contract costs); and 6) General Expenses (insurance, payments in LLeu of 

taxes, terminal leave payments, anployees benefit contributions, and collections 

of leases). 

TABLE 10 

ROUTINE EXPENDITURES: PALM BEACH COUNTY HOUSING AUTHORITY 



(In PercentT 



1978 1979 1980 



Arlminishrah-inn 


39.35 


37.83 


38.76 


Tenant Services 


4.36 


4.48 


4.63 


Utilities 


19.95 


20.21 


19.85 


Ordinary {Maintenance & Operation 


28.45 


29.09 


27.38 


Protective Services 


.07 


.04 


.00 


General Expenses 


7.78 


8.34 


9.35 



TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 

SOURCE: Palm Beach County Housing Authority, 1979. 

45 



-Routine expenditures constituted 38.05* of the budgeted total operating expen- 
ditures in 1978, 38.79$ in 1979, and 39.24% for 1980. 

Non-routine expenditures include actraordinary naintenance expenses, replacement 
of equipment, and additions. Non-routine expenditures constituted ^% or less of 
the budgeted total operating expenditures in 1978, 1979 and 1980 (See TA£LE 10). 

TABLE 11 

NON-ROUTINE EXPENDITURES: PALM. BEACH COUNTY HOUSING AUTHORITY 



(In Percent) 






1978 


1979 


1980 


Extraordinary Maintenance 27.09 
Replacement of Equipment 29.67 
Additions 16.12 
Other 27.09 


32.55 

16.40 

51.04 

0.00 


.00 

14.37 
40.00 
45.62 



TOTAL. 



100.00 



100.00 



100.00 



SOURCE: Palm Beach County Housing Authority, 1979. 



Operating expenditures in the Section 23 Housing Program also include a Hne 
item for "Rents to Ovmers of Leased Dwellings." This is the Authority's leasing 
expense for the Section 23 units at Dyson Circle in West Palm Beadi and the 
units in South Bay. The 1978 expense was 61.38% of the budgeted total operating 
expenditures, the 1979 expense vas 59.83% and the 1980 expense is projected at 
60.19%. This expense actually serves toward paying off the bonds originally 
sold to finance the construction of these units. At such time as all bonds are 
paid, the Authority will own the Section 23 units. 



The Authority estimated that the deficit prior to HUD contributions (i.e., basic 
annual contribution (payment on leased units) and an operating subsidy) was 
72.73% for 1978, 72.42% for 1979, and 72.30% for 1980. The deficits are high 
due to the amounts payable in "Rents to Owners of Leased Dwellings." The 
Authority has projected that 73% of the 1980 deficit will be relieved by HUD 
basic annual contribution, an additional 21% eliminated by operating subsidy and 
the remaining 6% by operating reserves. Operating subsidy was initially 
authorized by the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1969. Currently, these 
funds are being provided through a mechanism known as the Performance FUnding 
System (PFS) . The PES is designed to provide the amount of operating subsidy 
which would be needed for well-managed projects. The amount of subsidy is 
determined by the difference between the Authority's projected expenses and its 
projected operating income. Thus, the HUD subsidy can be utilized to dissolve a 
projected deficit. At the same time, however, part or all of the subsidy may be 
utilized to augment an Authority's operating reserve, although the PFS does not 
specifically provide operating subsidy for this purpose. 

46 



The Authority's Section 8 Existing Housing Program budget is prepared and sub- 
mitted to HUD as an estimate of total required annual contributions to operate 
the program. The contributions from HUD are largely passed on to private 
landlords in the form of a Housing Assistance Payment while a small portion is 
retained by the Authority to cover the cost of administering the program. 

The format of the Section 8 budget consists of the maximum annial contributions 
available, including any reserve funds fron the previous fiscal year and an 
estimate of required annual contributions to operate the program. An estimated 
total annual, contributions available is computed as the sum of the nHximum 
annual contributions authorized plus an estimated account balance (reser/e) at 
the end of the current fiscal year. The Authority's estimate of required annial 
contributions was computed as the sum of expenses for housing assistance 
payments (90.50%), and an administrative -fee (9.5J). 

In fiscal year 1980, the Authority was budgeted to receive almost $3 million in 
Section 8 funds for existing housing. For the last year and a half, Section 8 
existing funds have not been totally utilized by the Authority due to a lack of 
available units for leasing. 

The Authority's management of the Wedgewood Section 8 New Construction units 
does not require a HUD approved budget for annual operation. Instead, a 20-year 
housing assistance payments contract between KUD and the owner provides the 
basis for the annual operating budget. The operating budget also provides for 
the Authority's administrative fee, the cost of an annual audit in addition to 
other necessary expenses. 

Service Characteristics 

The Palm Beach County Housing Authority ser/es approximately 200 households 
through its Section 23 Public Housing Program. These households were admitted 
to the Public Housing Program according to established admission policies and 
procedures. Within the Authority's Section 23 Program admission policies, basic 
requirements such as eligibility and tenant selection criteria, occupancy 
standards, and provisions for the leasing of dwelling units are addressed. 
Applicants must satisfy prescribed socio-eccnanic eligibility requirements 
before the Authority will consider them as tenants. 

As a major concern, the Authority attempts to avoid concentrations of the most 
economically and/or socially deprived families in each of its projects. The 
Authority also attanpts to maintain a tenant body composed of families with a 
broad range of incomes and rent-paying ability. The Authority's intent is that 
the range of inccmes be generally representative of the lower-income families in 
the Authority's area of operation. First admission preference is given to 
families displaced by governmental action or whose dwelling has been extensively 
damaged or destroyed as a result of a declared disaster. Second preference is 
given to families not qualifying as displaced. 

47 



'Within each preference group priority is given to families within appropriate 
rent ranges having the most urgent need. Urgency is detennined by a rating 
system which evaluates the applicant's Living conditions. In addition to con- 
sidering displacement and viiether the family is without or soon to be without 
housing, the rating process looks at the location and physical condition of the 
unit including the water supply, sewage system, toilet, bath, kitchen, electri- 
cal and heating facilities, and ventilation. 

To avoid overcrowding and wasted space dwellings are leased in accordance with 
the occupancy standards reflected in TABLE 12.. 





TABLE 


12 




.' 


OCCUPANCY STANDARDS : 


PALM 


BEACH COUNTY HOUSING 


AUTHORITY 








Number 


of Persons 


Number of Bedrooms 






Minimum 




Maximum 


1 
2 

3 
4 

5 






1 
2 

b 




2 
6 

a 

10 



SOURCE; Palm Beach County Housing Authority, 1980. 

To facilitate the leasing of dwelling units a lease agreement is entered into 
between the Authority and each of its tenant families. The lease Is to be kept 
current and is to reflect the rent being charged, unit occupied and the con- 
ditions governing occupancy, including provisions for cancellation. The eligi- 
bility of each family is re-examined periodically, elderly families once every 
24 months, non-elderly families once every 12 months. 

As a mechanism for settling differences between tenants and the Authority, a 
grievance procedure is available to families in the Section 23 Housing Program. 
According to the procedure, all grievances and complaints are first presented to 
the Authority's central office. At this point they are discussed informally 
and, if possible, settled without a hearing. If the complainant desires a 
hearing, a written request is onde to the Authority. Tae matter is then pre- 
sented before an impartial disinterested hearing officer and/or a hearing panel 
for final disposition. The hearing officer is selected jointly by the 
complainant and the Authority. 



48 



A tenant organization for families in the Section 23 Program was fonnulated at 
both sites in 1975. Since then, however, these organizations have becane 
defunct. Efforts, under the direction of the Authority's camnunity services 
coordinator, are currently underway to reactivate these organizations. 

The Authority's waiting Ust for the Section 23 Program currently consists of 
over 1,100 families, 900 for the Dyson Circle site and 200 for the South Bay.' 
site. 

The executive director esqpressed dissatisfaction over the current level and 
variety of services available to the families in the Section 23 Program. 
However, under the direction of the Authority's community services coordinator, 
several services are being provided throu^ both public and private non-profit 
agencies within the County. Activities sponsored by the Authority include 
assisting needy families in securing food stamps and other social service needs. 
The Authority also solicits food donations and funds to aid some families in 
making rent payments. At Thanksgiving food baskets are given to needy families 
and at Christmas trees and toys which have been donated are also distributed. 
Fran donations throughout the year, distributions are made and occasional rum- 
mage sales are held. 

The Authority also sponsors and provides uniforms for a baseball and a sof tball 
team at the South Eay site. An Optimum Growth Program v^ich aids children with 
mental illnesses is sponsored by the South County Mental Health Association. 
.Through the Urban League of Palm Beach County CETA youth snployment and training 
programs are available. A college awareness program is also available. The 
Palm Beach County Cooperative Extension Service sponsors a 4H Club and other 
youth programs are provided by the Youth Service Bureau. Former programs 
include Project UP, a trauma rehabilitation program, Big Brothers, Boy and Girl 
Scouting, and a satellite office of the Palm Beach County Department of Social 
and Economic Services (previously the Welfare Department). Tae Authority is 
presently trying to get playgrounds at both sites through the County's CDBG 
Program. 

Transportation services constitute the Authority's biggest problsn in the area 
of service to tenants. All major nedical, shopping, and social and recreational 
entertainment facilities are located far beyond walking distance, particularly 
fran the Dyson Circle site. The Authority is currently receiving transportation 
assistance from Operation Concern and RSVP. The central office of the community 
services coordinator is located at the Dyson Circle site in West Palm Beach. A 
brandi office is also located at the South Bay site. 

The Authority's maintenance program for the Section 23 units is aimed at the 
upkeep of these units including appliances and electrical and plumbing fixtures. 
In the case of occupied units, the most common service required involves window 
auad screen replacements, refrigerator and stove repairs, and minor plumbing 
problems. Out of each week, Monday has the heaviest influx of service requests. 
The Authority also has a weekly pest and mosquito control program. Immediately 
after each vacancy, the unit is cleaned, painted, and fumigated. In the case of 
requests for inside painting, tenants can be supplied paint and do the work 
themselves if they so desire. Ground maintenance is the responsibility of the 
Authority. The Dyson Circle site is the headquarters of the maintenance 
personnel. The site manager and the community services coordinator are on 
2U-hour call. At the South Bay site the site manager and a maintenance mechanic 
are on 24-hour call. 

49 



The executive director feels that although the acc^tability of public housiiig 
■ is improving there is still some resistance being felt. He suggested the need 
to educate the public as to the goals and objectives of the public housing 
program. He noted that the acceptability of public housing has been greatly 
enhanced by trends toward smaller projects and the increasing extent to which 
public housdLng blends vdth non-public housing. 

Security has not been a problem for the Authority. Only occasional vandalism in 

vacant units has been experienced and no recent reports of security problsns 

have been received frcm tenants. All families have been advised to practice a 
"buddy systsn" of looking cut for each other ► 

In addition to the 200 households served throu^ its Section 23 housing program, 
the Palm Beach County Housing Authority also serves 656 households through its 
Section 8 Existing Housing Program. The Authority's Section 8 Program is 
governed by an Equal Opportunity Housing Plan *(EOHP) and an Administrative Plan, 
both of which define the program's policies and procedures. Primarily, the EOHP 
is designed to demonstrate the. Authority's intent to administer the program on a 
non-discriminatory basis in the selection of participating families and in the 
provision of services. The EOHP also addresses the Authority's intent to pro- 
mote a wide choice of bousing opportunities of minorities and female-headed 
households. The EOHP also includes procedures for the briefing of certificate 
holders and a procedure by which to address discrimination against certificate 
holders. The Administrative Plan, in addition to outlining the program's poli- 
cies and procedures, defines the duties of the Section 8 staff and addresses 
complaints by families under contracts and evictions. 

For each household admitted to the program certification of eligibility is 
determined through an application intervie/^. The applicant's income is the 
principal criteria followed by the applicant's current housing conditions. 
After eligibility certification, a Certificate of Family Participation is issued 
based on the following priorities: 

1) families displaced and disabled; 

2) on first ccme basis: 

families living in substandard housing; 
families living in overcrowded conditions; and 
families paying over 25' of their net income for rent. 

As a goal, at least 30* of the Authority's Section 8 households will be families 
vrtio qualify as very low-inccme families. Subsequent to the issuance of a 
Certificate of Family Participation, it is the family's responsibility to find 
suitable housing and to negotiate a lease with the landlord. Under HUD's 
"Finders-Keepers" policy the unit the family is occupying at the time the cer- 
tificate is issued may be eligible for Housing Assistance Payments if it quali- 
fies as existing housing. Upon request the Authority provides assistance in 
finding units to families who, because of age, handicap, or other reasons, are 
unable to locate suitable housing. Assistance is also provided to families who 
allege discrimination. Families are given a copy of the standard housing form 
which notes the criteria for acceptable housing to aid them in identifying 
suitable housing. Suggestions are also given to certificate holders on methods 
of locating suitable housing, and the Authority naintains a list of cwners who 
have units available. 

50 



After approving the unit and the lease, the Authority executes a Housing 
Assistance Payments Contract. Immediately prior to the rent due date, the 
Housing Assistance Payment is mailed to the landlord. The Housing Assistance 
Payment covers the difference between the Contract Rent and the portion payable 
by the family. The eligibility of non-elderly families is reGen:ified annually. 
The eligibility of elderly families is recertified "oi-annually. 

The grievance procedure available to tenants under the Section 23 Program is not 
available to tenants under Section 8. Tenants under the Section 8 Program are 
instructed to notify the Authority if they should have a complaint against the 
landlord for non-compliance with the lease or contract. After receiving such 
notice and an investigation is conducted viiich detenaines that the landlord is 
in non-compliance with the contract or lease, the landlord is notified by the 
Authority in writing as to the results of the investigation and the need to take 
corrective action. Every possible effort' is made by the Authority to settle the 
complaint without the Authority exercising its option of terminating the Housing 
Assistance Payment and relocating the family. 

Although tenant organizations are provided for residents in conventional public 
housing and Section 23 housing, HDD guidelines do not provide for tenant organi- 
zations for Section 8 Existing Housing Program residents. 

In establishing its waiting list for the Section 8 Program, applications are 
dated, timed, numbered, and filed by unit size. Currently the waiting list con- 
sists of over 1,200 families. 

The Section 8 Program also does not provide for any social or recreational ser- 
vices or facilities for tenants. The landlord is obligated to provide only 
those services, maintenance, safety features, and utilities agreed upon under 
the HAP contract. The landlord is also subject to the conditions and provisions 
of Florida's Landlord and Tenant Law, F.S. 83. 

Belle Glade Housing Authority 

The City of Belle Glade is situated in western Palm Beach County. The 1978 
population estimate for the City was 17,380, with minorities comprising 5^* of 
the population. In 1977, it was estimated that 65' of the City's families had 
incomes that '/»ere less than 80% of the median^ family inccme for Palm Beach 
County. In 1979, there was an estimated 6,060 dwelling units in the City of 
Belle Glade. 

The City's housing needs are addressed from a broad perspective through the 
City's CDBG Program. The City's HAP establishes housing objectives such as . 
rehabilitation, public housing, or rent supplements for the City's lower-inccme 
households. This HAP enables the City to receive federal housing assistance 
funds. The" City's CDBG Program has designated Neighborhood Strategy Areas (NSA) 
upon 'Which to concentrate its housiTig assistance programs. There are presently 
no direct linkages between the efforts of the Belle Glade Housing Authority and 
the Belle Glade CDBG Program. This is due, in part, to the fact that the Belle 
Glade Authority is funded through the Farmers Heme Administration (FraHA) and has 
no direct linkage to HUD programs. 

51 



Ehysical Characteristics 



The Belle Glade Housing Authority currently has 632 units of fann labor housing 
under its management (See TABLE 13). These 632 units are divided between two 
(2) project sites. 

The Osceola. Center, located at the intersection of "L" Street and N.W. 12th 
Street is the location of the Authority's central administrative office, and 
consists of 236 units. The Center's initial bousing stodc of frame construction, 
was built in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Dwelling units of concrete and 
block construction were built in I96I. The Osceola site consists of a mixture 
of single family detached units of frame construction, duplexes (most of which 
are CBS structures) and multi- family units. These are all grcund level units. 
The CBS structured units appear to be in good condition- However, several of 
the units of fl?ame construction, vdiich ccmprise the uajority of the units, have 
visible signs of disrepair (e.g., missing pieces of exterior siding, doors 
needing replacement, and widespread need for paint). This is due, in part, to 
the age of these structures. Also, the plumbing beneath many of the units is 
readily visible. This condition is attributed to the '^continuing decomposition 
of the muck upon which the units were built." The site is landscaped, and is 
largely without sidewalks, althou^ it has abundant open space. A few dumps ters 
facilitate refuse collection » 

Osceola facilities include a social hall and play area with a basketball court 
and climbing bars. A grocery store and public phones are also available. An 
open ditch on the Project's north side is the source of potential hazard. The 
Project is also partially bordered by a thickly wooded area on its east and west 
sides. Most of the Osceola Irouseholds are minority families. As reflected in 
TABLE 13, most of these households are small to medium in size. 



TABLE 13 



BELLE GLADE HOUSING AUTHORITY 



NUMBER OF D^MilNG UNITS I 








Units in 


Units in 


Dwelling 
Unit Sizes 


TOTAL 


Household Types 


Incorporated 
Area 


Unincorporated 
Area 


632 


Elderly 


Handicapped 


Minorit->- 


Eff. 


105 


97 






28 


77 


1-BR 


215 








133 


82 


2-BR 


151 








54 


97 


3-BR 


136 




NA 




21 


115 


4-BR 


25 








- 


25 


5-BR 


— 








— 


- 


6-BR 


- 








- 


- 


TOTAL 


632 


97 




397 


236 


396 



SOURCE: Belle Glade Housing Authority, 1979. 



52 



The Okeechobee Center, consisting of 396 units, is located outside the City's 
corporate boundary at the intersection of State Road 715 and State Road 80. The 
Center's initial housing stock of frame construction was built in the late 1930s 
and the early 1940s. Dwelling units of concrete and block construction were 
built in 1961. The Okeechobee site consists of a mixture of single family 
detached units of both frame and CBS construction, frame and CES duplexes, and 
multi-family units. The CBS structured units appear to be in good condition. 
However, several of the frame units have visible signs of disrepair (e.g., miss- 
ing pieces of exterior siding, doors needing replacenent, and a widespread need 
for paint). Also, the plumbing beneath many of the units is readily visible due 
to continuing subsidence. Several streets including parking areas have recently 
been repaved. 

The site is not landscaped, and is without sidewalks. Off street parking is 
available, lighting appears adequate, and" several dumpsters are available at the 
site for refuse collection. Public telephones are also available. Facilities 
on the grounds include a social hall, a grocery store, a child care center 
operated by the Florida Fann Workers' Council (formerly Cammjnity Action Migrant 
Program, Inc.), a rent collection office, and a play area consisting of a 
basketball court. 

Sources of potential hazards are represented by several dilapidated and aban- 
doned units of frame construction. Seme of these units were partially destroyed 
by fire. A small open canal along the Project's east and west sides and an open 
and blighted ditch running completely through the northern half of the Project 
also represent areas of potential hazards. 

Recognizing a need to improve the quality of its housing and the general 
appearance of its sites, the Belle Glade Housing Authority is preparing to ini- 
tiate an extensive modernization program. Planned improvements will primarily 
involve the replacement of at least 160 frame construction units. According to 
the RnHA District Office, funds totalir^g some $5 million will soon becane 
available to Implement this program. The program is expected to begin in early 
1980. 

Organizational Characteristics 

In the absence of established and adopted by-laws, the operations of the Belle 
Glade Housing Authority are guided solely by Florida Statutes, Chapter 421 . The 
Authority's basic organizational structure consists of a Board of Ccmmissioners 
and its administrative staff. The Authority's officers are a Board chaiiman, a 
vice diairman, and a secretary (executive director). The Authority's 
Ccxnmissioners are appointed by the Belle Glade City Ccuncil for a term of four 
(4) years. The basic powers and responsibilities of all housing authorities .are 
cited in Florida Statutes Chapter 421.08 (See Chapter III, page 28). 

The executive director is appointed annually by the Authority. The executive 
director supervises the management and administration of the Authority, and he 
is also diarged with the management of the Authority's housing projects. As 
deemed necessary in order to exercise its powers, duties and functions, the 
Authority inay employ personnel in addition to the executive director. 

53 



According to the executive director, the staff enjoys an excellent relationship 
with the Authority's Board of Conmissioners . The Board's cocperativeness was 
cited as a chief virtue. 

The current executive director of the Belle Glade Hcusing Authority has served 
in that capacity since mid-1 976.. Prior to beccming the Authority's executive 
director, he accumulated experience primarily in the field of hospital 
managanent. He is currently a member of the Florida Association of Housing and' 
Redevelopment Officials in addition to the Southeast Florida Housing Association 
Authority Directors. The executive director currently serves as the president 
or the Southeast Florida Housing Authority Directors. 

The staff of the Belle Glade Housing Authority consists of twenty-seven (27) 
full-time employees (See FIGURE V). Nineteen (19) members of the staff are 
minorities. There are also twenty- four (24) -tenants on the staff, nineteen (19) 
of whan are mLnorities. The Authority's legal assistance is provided thrcu^ a 
-local law firm. 

Satisfaction was expressed concerning the current level of staff performance in 
addition to the size of the present staff. Due to budgetary constraints, all 
staff training is performed "in-house" and the Authority maintains a very low 
and stable turnover rate. The executive director added that employee temre 
averages about seven (7) years. Staff members are involved in decision-oHking 
to the greatest extent possible. 

The Authority's relationship with the FnHA District Office, located in West Palm 
Beach, requires the submittal of monthly reports, the annual submittal of an 
operating budget for review and approval, and an annual audit by an independent 
accountant. FmHA also conducts an annual inspection of the housing sites. 

With respect to the question of tenant participation in policy-making throu^ 
membership on the Board of Ccramissioners , the executive director explained that 
such a decision is the Board's prerogative and that he would support any deci- 
sion fron the Board. However, the executive director feels that tenant par- 
ticipation in nanagement through employment with the Authority is a positive 
management practice. Currently, 89^ of the Belle Glade Housing Authority's 
staff* are tenants. 

The executive director indicated that in the day-to-day management of the 
Pahokee Housing Authority his time is not allocated based on any organized 
pattern; he simply addresses problems as they arise. 

Financial Characteristics 

The Authority develops an operating budget for each fiscal year. The 
Authority's budgeted operating receipts and expenditures for fiscal years 1979 
and 1980 prior to FmHA's review and approval are discussed in this section. The 
FmHA budget review process was basically conducted to make sure adequate amounts 
are budgeted to properly maintain the operation and to ensure that maximum rents 
aire not exceeded. 

The Authority's operating receipts are ccraprised solely of dwelling rental 
income. Budgeted operating receipts for 1979 and 1980 totalled $810,850 and 
$857,750, respectively. The 1980 figure represents a 5.47? increase over the 
previous year. 

54 











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55 



A3«a matter of practice, the Authority's total operating expenditures either do 
not exceed or are equal to the total operating receipts. This practice is 
largely attributable to the fact that no operating subsidy is provided by FniiA. 
In both 1979 and 19^0 budgeted expenditures were the same as budgeted receipts- 
Operating expenditures include the following six (6) factors: 1) Salaries and 
Wages, 2) Utilities, 3) Maintenance, 4) Insurance, 5) Taxes, and 6) Other 
Expenses (See TABLE 14). 

TABLE 14 

Operating Expenditures: Belle Glade Housing Authority 

Tin Percent) 



1979 1980 



Salaries and Wages 

Utilities 

Maintenance 

Insurance 

Taxes 

Other Expenses 



30.51 


30.86 


22.26 


21.04 


36.12 


37.59 


7.95 


7.51 


2.46 


2.33 


.67 


.64 



100.00 100.00 



SOURCE: Belle Glade Housing Authority, 1980. 

A major expense of the Authority, vAiich is built into the rnaintenance account, 
is an annual payment to FmKA on the principle of the loan made to the Authority 
in 1961. In the 1980 budget, this payment constituted 16^ of the total budgeted 
for operating expenditures. 

Service Characteristics 

The Belle Glade Housing Authority serves approximately 632 households thrcu^ 
its farm labor housing program. These households were admitted to the program 
according to the provisions of a lessee agreement and Authority regulations 
which largely pertain to naintenance and tenant safety. The lease primarily 
reflects the rent being charged, unit occupied and the conditions governing 
occupancy including provisions for cancellation. The principal requirement for 
admission eligibility and continuing occupancy is employment in agricultural 
work. Currently, the Authority's waiting list (pool of eligible applicants) 
consists of over 70 families. Most of these families, according to the execu- 
tive director, are seeking the Authority's larger units. During the winter 
months the '/jaiting list is longer due to the in-migration of agricultural 
workers . 

56 



I 



A formal grievance procedure for settling differences between tenants and the 
Authority is not currently available and, according to the executive director, 
the Authority has yet to have need for such a procedure, A tenant organization 
for the Belle Glade Housing Authority is presently in the formative stage. The 
executive director feels that his high visibility and open lines of communica- 
tion with tenants may ultimately preclude the need for a tenant organization. 

Currently, no social or recreational services are provided by the Authority and, 
according to the executive director, tenants have not requested any such ser- 
vices since the extra cost would have to be borne by the tenants. Sane services 
are, however, being provided by at least one commonity organization, the Florida 
Farmworkers' Council (formerly Ccmmunity Action Migrant Program, Inc.). At the 
Okeechobee Center, diild day car^ including a child study program area is 
available through the Florida Farmworkers'. Council. The facility which is pro- 
vided by the Authority contains a play area equipped with various pieces of 
playground hardware (e.g., swings, slides, climbing bars, etc.). Also, at the 
Okeechobee Center, the Florida Fannworkers ' Council staff organizes various 
recreational programs during the summer months. 

The maintenance program of the Belle Glade Housing Authority is aimed at the 
upkeep of the Authority's units including appliances, electrical, and plumbing 
fixtures. In the case of occupied units, the most camnon services required 
involve window and screen replaconents, refrigerator and stove repairs ^ and 
minor plumbing problems. According to the Authority's rules and regulations, 
all units are subject to a monthly inspection. 

Groundskeeping is the responsibility of the Authority. Tenants, however, are 
responsible for upkeep of the area immediately surrounding their place of resi- 
dence. Proper upkeep of the units, according to the executive director, is one 
of the Authority's biggest problems due to the age of nany of the units. The 
Osceola Project is the headquarters of the maintenance personnel. The executive 
director indicated that there have been no recent reports of security problems 
frcm tenants in either of the projects. 

It is felt that farm labor housing in the City of Belle Glade is well accepted. 
This feeling is largely attributed to the agricultural environment, and the 
well established presence of low rent /housing in addition to the large popula- 
tion of low-inccme persons. 

Pahokee Housing Authority 

The City of Pahokee is situated in the northwestern part of Palm Beach County in 
the Glades area. The City's 1978 population is estimated at 5,415 with minori- 
ties comprising nearly 50% of the population. The City's nEdian family jjicane 
in 1970 was $6,847. The comparable figure for Palm Beach County was $9,112. 
This implies that the average family inccme in the City was less than the 
countywide nioderate income in 1970. 

The City of Pahokee is currently a participant in the Palm Beach County ODBC 
Program. V/hile the CDBG Program addresses housing needs from a broad perspec- 
tive, it includes a HAP which specifically addresses such needs as rehabilita- 
tion, public housing, and rent supplements for the City's lower-incane 



57 



households. In Pahokee, the County program has designated a Neighborhood 
Strategy Area (NSA) as the focus of specific housing assistance programs. 
Currently, the relationship between the Pahokee Housing Authority and the Palm 
Beach County CDBG Program is limited to the development of the HAP. However, 
two (2) of the Authority's projects are benefiting from County community deve- 
lopment activity even though they are not located in the NSA. Curb and gutter 
construction is presently unden^ay and plans also call for the repaving of 
selected streets. This work began in 1978, and is expected to be ccmpleted in 
1980. No further improvements fron cammjnity development are expected since 
current regulations prohibit the use of funds outside NSA's. 

Physical Charact eris t ics 

The Pahokee Housing Authority currently has 51-5 units of conventional public 
housing under its nanagement. These units are divided between four (4) project 
sites (See FIGURE VI) . The composition of units in these four (4) sites is 
depicted in TABLE 15. ' 

TABLE 15 

PAHOKEE HOUSING AUTHORITY PROJECTS 





Eff. 


1 BR 


2 BR 


3 BR 


4 BR 


5 BR 


6 BR 


TOTAL 


Stuckey Homes 


- 


4 


16 


16 


4 


— 


- 


40 


McClure Village 
Padgett Island Homes 


20 


15 
44 


27 
55 


27 
55 


6 
20 


5 


1 


75 
200 


Fremd Village 


- 


18 


74 


74 


28 


5 


1 


200 


TOTAL 
















515 



Source: Pahokee Housing Authority, 1979. 

The Stuckey Homes Project, the location of the Authority's administrative 
office, consists of 40 units. It was built in 1953 and is located between 
Friend Terrace and Cypress Avenue. The Stuckey Homes site consists of CBS 
duplexes vAiich appear to be in good condition. The Project, which is land- 
scaped, has abundant open space, is bordered by sidewalks with internal access 
provided by walkways. Off street parking is available and lighting appears 
adequate. Within the site there is a play area with swings, a slide, and a 
basketball court. Recreation space is also provided by a city ball park located 
immediately to the south of the Project. Several dumpsters at the site facili- 
tate refuse collection. Most of the Stuckey Homes households are minority 
families. As reflected in TABLE 14, most of these families are medium in size. 

McClure Village, consisting of 75 units, was constructed in 1958 and is located 
on McClure Road. This site consists mainly of duplex units with a few single 
family units. These units are all CBS structures ;>rtiich appear to be in good 

58 



PUBLIC HOUSING SITES 



PAHOKEE 



LAKE 

OKEECHOBEE 




STUCKEY HOMES 



PADGETT ISLAND HOMES 



o^FREMD VILLAGE 

3) 



Source: Pahokee Housing Authority, 1979, 



<33> 



59 



FIGURE VI 



condition. The Project is landscaped, has abundant cpen space and is canpletely 
sidewalked vdth internal access provided by walkways. Off street parking is 
available and lighting appears adequate. The Project's play area is equipped 
with swings and a slide. Refuse collection is provided by dumpsters located 
within the Project. A long open ditch along the Project's north side mkes for 
a potentially hazardous area. Most of the households at the McClure Village 
site are small and medium size minority families. 

Padgett Island Homes, consisting of 200 units, was constructed in 1970 and is 
located in the unincorporated area along U.S. Highway 441. This site consists 
of a mixture of CBS row housing and duplexes. All of the units appear to be in 
good external condition. The site is landscaped, has abundant open space and is 
completely sidewalked including internal walkways. Off street parking is 
available and lighting appears to be adequate. Dumpsters provide for refuse 
collection. 

Fremd Village, consisting of 200 units, was constructed in 1971, and is located 
in the unincorporated area near U.S. Highway 441. This site consists mostly of 
ground level raulti- family units. These units are all CES structures vAiich 
appear to be in good external condition. The Project is landscaped, has abundant 
open space, and is completely bordered with sidewalks. Off street parking is 
available and lighting appears adequate. Although there is no equipped play 
area, an abundance of open space on the Project's north side could be utilized 
for recreation activities. For the elderly, a Senior Citizens' Busy Bee Club, 
sponsored by the Florida Farmworkers' Council (formerly the Community Action 
Migrant Program, Inc.), is operated out of a facility located within the 
Project. Dumpsters located within the site facilitate refuse collection. 

Several streets and curb areas within the Project are in need of repair. As 
previously indicated, these conditions are currently being rectified with 
funding frcm the County Conmunity Development Program. An open canal on the 
west side of the site represents a potentially hazardous area. Most of the 
Fremd Village households are minority families. Most of these households are 
medium to large in size. 

The Pahokee Housing Authority presently has no plans for the future construction 
or acquisition of additional units. 

Organizational Characteristics 

The by-laws of the Pahokee Housing Authority indicate that the Authority's basic 
organizational structure consists of a Board of Commissioners and its admin- 
istrative staff. The Authority's officers are a Board chairman, a vice 
chairman, a secretary-treasurer (executive director), and an assistant 
secretary-treasurer. The Authority's Commissioners are appointed by the Pahokee 
City Council for a term of four (4) years. At its annual meeting, the Authority 
elects a chairman and a vice chairman frcra among the Canmiss loners. These offi- 
cers hold office for one year or until successors are elected and qualified. 
The basic powers and responsibilities of all housing authorities are cited in 
Florida Statutes Chapter 421.08 (See Chapter III, page 28). 



60 



The executive director is appointed by the Authority. Ee supervises the manage- 
ment of the Authority's housing projects. As deemed necessary in order to exer- 
cise its powers, duties and functions, the Authority nay employ personnel in 
addition to the executive director. The by-laws of the Authority provide for 
three types of neetings: annual, regular, and special meetings. In all 
meetings of the Authority, a quorum is obtained by the presence of a aajority of 
its five comnissioners . Voting is done by roll call. The staff enjoys a highly 
cooperative relationship with the Authority's Board of Camnissioners. 

The current executive director of the Pahokee Housing Authority has served in 
that capacity since August 1978. He received training in public housing manage- 
ment as the Authority's assistant director fran 1968 to 1970 when he became the 
acting executive director. He served as the acting executive director until 
1974, he left the Authority and returned in 1978. The executive director is 
currently a member of the National Association of Housing and Redevelopment 
Officials in addition to the Florida Association of Housing and Redevelopment 
Officials. 

The administrative staff of the Authority consists of 18 permanent full-time 
employees and one temporary full-time employee ffom the CETA Program (See 
FIGURE VII). Twelve (12) members of the staff are minorities, all are black. 
There are also twelve (12) tenants on staff. The Authority's legal assistance 
is provided through a local law firm. 

Satisfaction was also expressed with the present quality of the staff ^s 
performance. The various, HUD, NAHRO, and FAHRO sponsored training conferences, 
which are attended by appropriate staff members, were credited as playing a 
major role in the staff's continuing development. To the greatest extent 
possible staff members are involved in decision-making. Concern, however, was 
also expressed over the inadequate level of service and the need for additional 
personnel. Recently, a proposal vas submitted to the Palm Beach County CETA 
Program requesting 30 positions: 5 social workers, 18 maintenance woricers, and 
7 painters. 

The quality of the staff's performance is also partly attributed to a successful 
relationship with the HUD Area Office in Jacksonville. It is felt that the HUD 
staff is cooperative and helpful. 

The executive director had no objections on the issue of tenant participation in 
policy-making through membership on the Board- of Ccmmissioners. Since 1976 the 
Authority has had a tenant Ccmmissioner. Tae executive director indicated that 
having a tenant on the Board of Ccmmissioners has improved the overall effec- 
tiveness of the Board. The executive director feels that the participation of a 
tenant enhances the Board's awareness of the realities of tenant life in public 
housing. The executive director also expressed a favorable attitude toward 
tenant participation in management through employment with the Authority. As a 
major advantage he pointed to an increased awareness of the needs and problans 
of tenants. In many instances, small situations are defused before they become 
large problems. Currently, 66.6^ of the Authority's staff are tenants and the 
executive director is a former tenant. 

The executive director indicated that in the day-to-day nanagement of the 
Pahokee Housing Authority his time is not allocated based on any organized 
pattern; he simply addresses problems as they arise. 

61 




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62 



Financial Characteristics 



The Authority develops an operating budget for each fiscal year. The 
Authority's budgeted operating receipts and expenditures for fiscal years 1978, 
1979 and 1980 prior to HUD's modifications, are discussed in this section. 

The Authority's total operating receipts, excluding HUD's contributions, are' 
comprised of dwelling rental inccme including excess utilities, interest on 
general fund investments, and other receipts. The Authority's operating 
receipts, as budgeted, totalled $448,110 for 1978 and $415,110 for 1979. 
Budgeted operating receipts for 1980 (the current fiscal year, ending June 30, 
1980) totalled $401,820. These figures suggest a trend of decreasing budgeted 
operating receipts: a 7.37* decrease frcm 1978 to 1979 and a 3.21^ decrease 
from 1979 to 1980. 

Total operating expenditures were budgeted at $611,200 in 1978 and $723,310 in 
1979. Budgeted operating expenditures for 1980 totalled $666,450. These 
figures represent an increase fran 1978 to 1979 by 15.5^ and a decrease from 
1979 to 1980 by 7.87%. Total operating expenditures are brd^en down into three 
(3) categories: routine, non-routine, and other. 

Routine expenditures (as depicted in TABLE 16) include the following: 

1) Administrative (salaries and other expenses); 2) Tenant Services (salaries, 

recreation, publications, contract costs, training, and other programs); 

3) Utilities (utility costs and labor); 4) Ordinary Maintenance and Operations 

(labor, materials and contract costs); 5) Protective Services (labor, materials 

and contract costs); and 6) General Expenses (insurance payments in lieu of 

taxes, terminal leave payments, employees benefit contributions, and collections 

of leases). 

TABLE 16 

ROUTINE EXPENDITURES: PAHOKEE HOUSING AUTHORITY 

(In Percent ) 

1978 ■ 1979 1980 



Arimi.nist.rahinn 


16.63 


16.25 


16.72 


Tenant Services 


.16 


1.25 


1.68 


Utilities 


35.85 


34.46 


32.15 


Ordinary f^intenance 








and Operations 


35.81 


35.59 


36.60 


Protective Services 


.00 


.47 


.45 


General Expenses 


11.62 


11.94 


12.37 



TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 

SOURCE: Pahokee Housing Authority, 1979. 

63 



Routine expenditures constitute 87% of the budgeted total operating expenditures 
in both 1978 and 1979, and 98% for 1980. 

Non-routine expenditures include extraordinary naintenance expenses, replacement 
of equipment, and additions (See TABLE 17). Non-routine expenditures consti- 
tuted 13% of the budgeted total operating expenditures in 1978 and 1979, and 2% 
for 1980. 

TABLE 17 

NON-ROUTINE EXPENDITURES: PAHOKEE HOUSING AUTHORITY 

(In Percent) 

1978 1979 1980 

Extraordinary t-laintenance 20.25 70.58 .00 

Replacement of Equipment 71.82 29.41 9^.02 

Additions 7.90 .00 5.97 

TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 

Source: Pahokee Housing Authority, 1979. 

The Authority estimated that the deficit prior to the HUD contribution (i.e., 
operating subsidy) was 26.68% for 1978, 42.60% for 1979, and 39.70% for 1980. 
Operating subsidy was initially authorized by the Housing and Urban Development 
Act of 1969. Currently, these funds are being provided thrcugh a mechanian 
known as the Performance Elmding System (PES) . The PES is designed to provide 
the amount of qjerating subsidy which would be needed for well-managed projects. 
The amount of subsidy is determined by the difference between the Authority's 
projected expenses and its projected operating incone. Thus, the HUD subsidy 
can be utilized to dissolve a projected deficit. At the same time, however, 
part or all of the subsidy may be utilized to augment an authority's operating 
reserve, although the PES does not specifically provide operating subsidy for 
this purpose. 

Service Characteristics 

The Pahokee Housing Authority serves approximately 515 households through its 
conventional public housing program. These households were admitted to the 
public housing program according to established admission policies and proce- 
dures. Within the Authority's admission policies, basic requiranents such as 
eligibility and tenant selection criteria, occupancy standards, and provisions 
for the leasing of dwelling units are addressed. Applicants must satisfy 
prescribed socio-econcraic eligibility requironents before the Authority will 
consider them as tenants. 

The Authority's order of preferences is applied according to a rent range sche- 
dule in addition to residency categories. With respect to residency categories 
preference is given to families who have resided within a five (5) mile radius 
of Pahokee for a period of at least six (6) months. For families in this group, 

64 



first preference is given to displaced families. Among these families pre- 
ference is given to families of disabled veterans followed by families of 
deceased veterans or servicemen then to families of other veterans or 
servicemen, elderly families, families who would be considered a minority for 
the purpose of integration, and then to other displaced families. Second pre- 
ference is given to families not qualifying as displaced in the same order as 
listed above. In the same order applyir^ to first and second preferences, sub- 
sequent preferences are given to families residing outside the five (5) mile 
radius of Pahokee, or to those who have not resided within the radius for the 
mi m' rnnm length of time. Within each group consideration is given to' the urgency 
of the applicant family's housing need. Urgency is detennined by the date and 
time of application in addition to a rating system which evaluates the 
applicant's living conditions. The rating process lodes at the location of the 
unit and its physical condition including. the water supply, sewage system, 
toilet, bath, kitchen, electrical, and heating facilities, and ventilation. 

Out of a central pool of eligible applications families are chosen and offered 
an appropriate unit at the project with the largest number of vacancies. To 
avoid overcrowding and prevent wasted space dwellings are leased in accordance 
with the occupancy standards reflected in TABLE 18. 

TABLE 18 

OCCUPANCY STANDARDS: PAKOKES HOUSING AUTHORITY 

Number of Persons 
Number of Bedroans Minimum Maximum 

1 2 

1 1 3 

2 2 5 

3 4 7 

4 6 9 

5 8 1 

6 10 5 

Source: Pahokee Housing Authority, 1980. 

To facilitate the leasing of dwelling units, a lease agreement is entered into 
between the Authority and each of its tenant families. The lease is to be kept 
current and is to reflect the rent being charged, unit occupied and the con- 
ditions governing occupancy including provisions for cancellation. At least 20% 
of the dwelling units in each project must be occupied by very low-inccme 
families. The eligibility of each family is re-examined periodically, elderly 
families once every 24 months, non-elderly families once every 12 months. 

Currently, the Authority's waiting list (pool of eligible applications) consists 
of over 140 families. Many of these families, according to the executive 
director, came from Belle Glade and South Bay due to housing shortages in those 
cities. The executive director believes that a large majority of the need for 
public housing within Pahokee is currently being net. 

65 



As^ a ruechanism for settling differences between tenants and the Authority , a 
grievance procedure is available. According to the procedure, all grievances 
are first presented to the Authority's centzral office. At this point they are 
discussed informally and, if possible, settled without a hearing. If the 
complainant desires a hearing a written request is made to the Authority. The 
matter is then presented before an impartial disinterested hearing officer or 
hearing panel for final disposition. The hearing officer is selected jointly by 
the complainant and the Authority. 

The Pahokee Housing Authority has one tenant organization which serves all of 
the projects. This organization grew out of a rural help committee which was 
initiated in 1972. In 1976 when HDD support was obtained, the committee became 
known as the Pahokee Housing Authority Tenant Organization. The organization, 
which has 35 to 40 active members, meets bi-weekly during the fall and winter, 
and weekly during the spring and summer. 

The maintenance program of tiie Pahokee Housing Authority is aimed at the upkeep 
of the Authority's units, including appliances and electrical plumbing fixtures. 
In the case of occupied units, the most ccmmon service required involves window 
and screen replacements, refrigerator and stove repairs, and aiinor plumbing 
problems. Immediately after each vacancy the unit is inspected, cleaned, 
painted, fumigated, and re-inspected. An additional inspection is nade with the 
new tenant family to ensure its satisfaction. Tenants are permitted to paint 
the inside of their units with their paint or with paint provided by the 
Authority. Tenants are not permitted to do any outside painting. A moder- 
nization program is currently underway involving external painting at the 
Padgett Island Hemes and Frond Village Projects while heater installations and 
electrical improvements are being carried cut at the Stuckey Hemes and McClure 
Village Projects. Tae Authority has three (3) maintenance mechanics on 24-hour 
call. 

Groundskeeping is the responsibility of the Authority. Tenants, however, are 
responsible for cutting lawns around shrubbery and gardens. This is due to the 
Authority's difficulty in getting maintenance equipment in sniall areas. The 
executive director indicated that there have been no recent reports of security 
problems from tenants in any of the projects. 

It is felt that public housing in the City of Pahokee is well accepted. This 
feeling is largely attributed to the well established presence of low rent/- 
public housing, as well as the general appearance of the Authority's projects. 

Riviera Beach Housing Authority 

The City of Riviera Beach is situated in east central Palm Beach County. The 
City's 1979 population was estimated at 28,564. In 1970, blacks accounted for 
55.7^ of the total population. Median family income in Riviera Beach in 1970 
was $7,677. During this same year, 20$ of all families had incones belcw the 
poverty level, most of these families were black. 



66 



The City of Riviera Beach is currently a participant in the Palm Beach County 
CDBG Program. While the CDBG Program addresses housing needs fran a broad 
perspective, it includes a HAP -vthich specifically addresses such needs as 
rehabilitation, public housing, and rent supplements for the City's lower-incone 
households. In Riviera Beach, the County program has designated a Neighborhood 
Strategy Area (NSA) as the focus of specific housing assistance programs. There 
are no direct linkages between the Riviera Beach Housing Authority and the Palm 
Beach County CDBG Program. 

Physical Characteristics 

The Riviera Beach Housing Authority currently has 332 units under its manage- 
ment: 156 Section 23 units and 176 units under the Section 8 Housing Assistance 
Program (See TABLE 19). The Section 23 units ccmprise the Authority's IveyGreen 
Project located at 2014 West 17th Court. 

Ivey-Green was constructed in 1976 and consists of ground level concrete block 
structures (CBS), duplexes, rov/nouses, and a three-story multi-family unit. 
Visual inspection of the project found the units in good external condition. 
The Project is landscaped, has abundant open space and is sidewalked. Off street 
parking is available and lighting appears adequate. 

Ivey-Green has a recreation center to the north and west and has a high hedge 
along the east and south to protect residents fran potential hazards associated 
with a canal and wooded areas. Ivey-Green household types include 50 units for 
the elderly with the remaining units divided between medium and large families. 
Most all of these households are minority. 

TABLE 19 

RIVIERA BEACH HOUSING AUTHORITY 



NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS I 










Units in 


Units in 


Dwelling 
Unit Sizes 


TOTAL 




Household Types 


Incorporated 
Area 


Unincorporated 
Area 


332 


Elderly 


KandicaDoed 


Minority 


Eff. 


10 








10 




1-BR 


62 








62 




2-BR 


75 








75 




3-BR 


19 








19 




4-BR 


10 








10 




5-BR 


— 








-. 




6-BR 


- 








- 




TOTAL 


176 


* 


* 


97 


176 




Eff. 










. 




1-BR 


50 


42 


a 




50 




2-BR 


46 








46 




3-BR 


40 








40 




M-BR 


20 








20 




5-BR 


— 








- 




6-BR 


- 








- 




TOTAL 


156 


42 


b 


147 


156 





Source: Riviera Beach Housing Authority, 1980. 

* Information not readily available. 

67 



In addition to these 156 units under Section 23, the Riviera Beach Housing 
Authority also manages a total of 176 units under the Section 8 Existing 
Program. These units are scattered throughout the conmunity within the City's 
corporate limits. The Authority also has an interlocal agreement vd.th the Palm 
Beach Housing Authority which allows these Authorities to enter into each 
other's operating area for the purpose of providing Section 8 Housing Assistance 
Payments. Only when Section 8 funds are exhausted in either c^erating area can. 
the other housing authority enter. 

Qrganir^tional Characteristics 

The by-laws of the Riviera Beach Housing Authority indicate that the Authority ' s 
basic organizational structure consists of a Board of Commissioners and its 
administrative staff.. The officers of the Authority are the Board chainnan, and 
vice chairman. 

The Riviera Beach City Council appoints the housing authority Commissioners for 
a term of four (4) years. The Authority annually elects a chainnan and vice 
chairman from among the Camnissioners . These officers hold office for one year 
or until successors are elected and qualified. The basic powers and respon- 
sibilities of all housing authorities are cited in Florida Statutes, Chapter 
421.08 (See Chapter III, Page 28). 

A secretary, appointed by the Authority, is responsible for keeping the 
Authority's records, recording votes and minutes fran all meetings of the 
Authority. An executive director, also appointed by the Authority, supervises 
the management and administration of the -Authority including its housing 
projects. Personnel, in addition to the executive director, may also be 
employed by the Authority. Two (2) types of neetings are provided for in the. 
by-laws: regular and special meetings. In all meetings of the Authority a 
quorum is obtained by the attendance of a majority of its five (5) Camnission- 
ers. Voting on matters caning before the Authority is done by roll call. 
Currently, a cooperative relationship exists between the staff and the present 
Board of Camnissioners. 

The oirrent executive director of the Riviera Beach Housing Authority has served 
in that capacity since September 20, 1979. Prior to becaning the executive 
director, he served for two (2) years as the Authority's Section 8 program 
coordinator. This executive director is the third appointed since late 1978. 
Over the last two (2) years, the Riviera Beach Housing Authority was plagued 
with problems involving alleged financial mismanagement. This sitiiation 
resulted in a comprehensive investigation including an audit by HUD. Other 
repercussions included a change in the ccmposition of the Authority's Board of 
Commissioners and resignation of the Board's diainnan. One of the four (4) 
remaining Ccramissioners has been cut of town since early 1979- The terms of two* 
(2) of the remaining Camnissioners expired in December 1979, at which time the 
City of Riviera Beach needed to appoint four (4) new Camnissioners. 



68 



The current executive director is a member of the National Association of 
Housing and Redevelopment Officials (NAERO), its Southeastern Regional Ccuncil 
of NAHRO, and the Florida Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials. 

The staff of the Riviera Beach Housing Authority consists of nine (9) permanent 
full-time employees and four (4) tanporary full-time employees fran the CSTA. 
Program (See FIGURE VIII). Nine (9) members of the staff are minorities, all 
black. There are no tenants on the staff. The Authority's legal assistance is 
provided through a local law finn. 

Great satisfaction was expressed over the quality of the staff ^s performance at 
present as it attempts to recover from the past problems of the Authority. 
However, concern was expressed about the need for additional personnel. As a 
priority, it was felt that an accountant and additional maintenance personnel 
are needed. Other desirable positions included a receptionist and a housing • 
inspector for the Section 8 Program. Despite budgetary constraints, the execu- 
tive director and the Section 8 coordinator try to attend at least one HUD 
training conference each year. Due to the size of the administrative staff, in- 
house "cross-training" is stressed as an on-going concern in order to enhance 
productivity. 

Staff members are involved in decision-making to the greatest extent possible. 
Since the staff* s attitude toward cHents is viewed as critically important, 
conscientiousness and sensitivity are stressed in staff-client relationships. 
Budgetary constraints have not led to any problems in staff turnover. 

The staff's progress in its recovery from past problems has been enhanced by a 
successful relationship with HUD's office in Jacksonville. It is felt that the 
HUD staff is cooperative and helpful. The various views and evaluations by HUD 
have been especially helpful in increasing the quality of the staff's perfor- 
mance. 

The fflcecutive director had no objections on the issue of tenant participation in 
policy-making throu^ membership on the Board of Conmissioners. However, with 
respect to tenant participation in management through enployment with the 
Authority, the executive director felt that the confidentiality of tenant 
records would be jeopardized. However, the executive director expressed an 
intent to examine pertinent material for a more informed position on this issue. 

In the day-to-day management of the Riviera Beach Hcusing Authority, the execu- 
tive director usually spends his time as follows: administration, including 
interaction with HUD and personnel matters (45^); public relations (30^); and 
tenant matters including field inspections and tenant organization (25/6). 

Financial Characteristics 

An operating budget is developed each fiscal year for each of the Authority's 
two (2) housing pograms. The Authority's Section 23 and Section 8 housing 
programs budgeted operating receipts and expenditures for fiscal year 1980, 
prior to HUD's modifications, are discussed in this section. 

' 69 



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70 



Total operating receipts fran the Section 23 Program, excluding HUD's contri- 
butions, are largely comprised of dwelling and non-dwelling rental incane, 
excess utilities, interest, and other incane. Total operating receipts, as 
budgeted, were $111,000 for 1980- The total operating expenditures for the 
Section 23 Program were estimated at $510,324 for 1980. The housing authority, 
since its inception, has never had a certified audit until HUD's investigation 
in 1979 and the results of that audit are not yet available. 

Total operating expenditures are broken down into three (3) categories: 
routine, non-routine, and other. Routine expenditures include the folla/d.ng: 
1) Administration (salaries and other expenses); 2) Tenant Ser/ices (salaries, 
recreation, publications, contract costs, training, ar^ other programs); 
3) Utilities (utility costs and labor); 4) Ordinary hiaintenance and Operations 
(labor, materials and contract costs); 5) Protective Services (labor, naterials 
and contract costs); and 6) General Expenses (insurance payments in lieu of 
taxes, terminal leave payments, employees benefit contributions, and collections 
of leases) (See TABLE 20). 

TABLE 20 
ROUTINE EXPENDITURES: RIVIERA BEACH HOUSLNG AUTHORITY 



(In Percent) 






1980 


Administration 


25.62 


Tenant Services 


1.39 


Utilities 


26.87 


Ordinary Maintenance & Operation 


32.17 


Protective Services 


4.13 


General Expenses 


9.79 



TOTAL 100.00 

SOURCE: Riviera Beach Housing Authority, 1979. 

Routine expenditures constitute 355o of budgeted operating expenditures. 

Non-routine expenditures include extraordinary sainter-ance, replaconent of 
equipment, and additions. In 1980, 100% of these expenditures was budgeted for 
replacement of equipment. This expense constitutes less than 1* of twdgeted 
operating expenditures. 

Operating expenditures in the Section 23 Housing Program also include a line 
item for "Rents to Owners of Leased Dwellings." This is the Authority's leasing 
expense for the Ivey-Green Project. This expense actually ser/es toward paying 
off the bonds originally sold to finance the Project's construction. At such 
time as all bonds are paid, the Authority will own the Project. 

71 



-The Authority estimated that the deficit prior to HUD contributions (i.e., basic 
annual contribution (payment on leased project) and an operating subsidy) was 
78.25% of the total budgeted operating expenditures for 198O, Tnis deficit is 
high due to the amount payable in "Hents to Owners of Leased Dwellings," which 
is 6556 of the Authority's total operating expenditures as budgeted. The 
Authority has projected that the EiUD basic annual contribution will relieve 80% 
of the projected deficit with the remaining 20% eliminated by operating subsidy. 

Operating subsidy was initially authorized by the Housing and Urban Development 
Act of 1969. Currently, these funds are being provided through a mechanism 
known as the Performance FUnding System (PFS) . The PFS is designed to provide 
the amount of operating subsidy which would be needed for well-managed projects. 
The amount of subsidy is determined by the difference between the Authority's 
projected expenses and its projected operating incane. Thus, the HUD subsidy 
can be utilized to dissolve a projected deficit. At the same time, however, 
part or all of the subsidy may be utilized to augment an authority's operating 
reserve, although the PFS does not specifically provide operating subsidy for 
this purpose. 

The Authority's Section 8 Ebdsting Housing Program budget is prepared and sub- 
mitted to HUD as an estimate of total required annual contributions. The con- 
tributions fron HUD are largely passed on to private landlords in the fonn of a 
Housing Assistance Payment, virile a small portion is retained by the Authority 
to cover the cost of administering the program. 

The format of the Section 8 budget consists of the mqxi'nujm anmal contributions 
authorized, and an estimate of required annual contributions. An estimated 
total annual contributions available is computed as the sum of the maximum 
annual contributions authorized plus an estimated account balance (reserve) at 
the end of the current fiscal year. The Authority's estimate of required annual 
contributions was computed as the sum of expenses for housing assistance 
payments (89.1%), an administrative fee (10.5%), and the cost of an independent 
audit (0.4%). 

Nearly $600,000 are available for use in 198O; however, for a year and a half 
the expending of Section 8 Existing funds has been difficult due to a lack of 
available rental housing. 

Service Characteristics 

The Riviera Beach Housing Authority serves approximately 156 households thrcu^ 
its Section 23 Public Housing Program. These households were admitted to the 
Public Housing Program according to established admission policies and proce- 
dures. Within the Authority's Section 23 admission policies, basic requiranents 
such as eligibility and tenant selection criteria, occupancy standards, and pro- 
visions for the leasing of dwelling units are addressed. Applicants must 
satisfy prescribed socio-economic eligibility requirements before the Authority 
will consider them as tenants. 

A major concern of the Authority is to maintain a tenant body composed of fami- 
lies with a broad range of incomes and rent-paying ability. The Authority's 
intent is that the range of incomes be generally representative of the lower- 
income families in the Authority's area of operation (within 5 miles of the 
City's limits). 

72 



First admission preference is given to families who reside, or vrfio are employed, 
in Riviera Beach. Among these families preference is given first to elderly- 
families and then to elderly single persons, followed by families of veterans, 
servicemen and others. Second preference is given to families who reside cut- 
side Riviera Beach according to the denoted procedure. Within each group con- 
sideration is given to the urgency of the family's housing need. An initial . 
offering is made when a vacancy becomes available. If two (2) such offers are 
rejected, the family's application is placed at the bottom of eligible 
applicants . 

At the time of admission and vacancy, the tenant and a representative of the 
Authority make a physical inspection of the unit. An Inspection Report is 
completed and signed in duplicate by these two (2) parties. This report serves 
as the basis for determining the naintenance ciiarges to be passed on to the 
tenant. 

To facilitate the leasing of dwelling units, a lease agreement is entered into 
between the Authority and each of its tenant families. The lease is to be kept 
current and is to reflect the rent being charged, unit occupied, the date of 
admission, the size of the unit, all family members ^o will live in the unit, 
the utility allowances, other charges under the lease, and the terms of occu- 
pancy. All families are re-examined for rent, eligibility and family 
composition. Non-elderly families are examined once a year and elderly 
families, whose head of household is over 62 years old, are examined at least 
once every two (2) years. 

The executive director is presently contemplating steps designed to foster an 
increased awareness on the parts of the Authority's Commissioners and the can- 
munity at large concerning the need to support public housing. This he believes 
will enhance the ability of the Authority to more effectively address public 
housing needs in the City of Riviera Beach. 

In addition to the 156 households served through its Section 23 Hcusir^ Program, 
the Riviera Beach Housing Authority also serves 176 households through its 
Section 8 Housing Program. The Authority's Section 8 Program is governed by an 
Equal Opportunity Housing Plan (EOHP) and an Administrative Plan, both of which 
define the program's policies and procedures. Primarily, the EOHP is designed 
to demonstrate the Authority's intent to administer the program on a non- 
discriminatory basis in the selection of participating families and in the pro- 
vision of services. The EOHP also addresses the Authority's intent to prcmote a 
wide choice of housing opportunities of minorities and female-headed households. 

The EOHP also includes procedures for the briefing of certificate holders and a 
procedure by which to address discrimination against certificate holders. The 
Administrative Plan, in addition to outlining the Program's policies and proce- 
dures, defines the duties of the Section 8 staff and addresses canplaints by 
families under contracts and evictions. 

For each household admitted certification of eligibility is determined thrcugh 
an application interview. The applicant's income is the principal criteria 
followed by the applicant's current housir^ conditions. After eligibility cer- 
tification, a Certificate of Family Participation is issued t^sed on the 
following priorities: 

73 



1) families displaced and disabled; 

2) families Living in substandard housing; 

3) families living in overcrowded conditions; and 

4) families paying over 25/5 of their net income for rent. 

As a goal at least 30$ of the Authority's Section 8 households vdll be families 
who qualify as very low- income families. Subsequent to the issuance of a 
Certificate of Family Participation, it is the family's responsibility to find 
suitable housing and to negotiate a lease with the landlord. Under HUD's 
"Finders-Keepers'^ policy, the unit the' family is occupying at the time the cer- 
tificate is issued may be eligible for Housing Assistance Payments if it quali- 
fies as Existing Housing. Upon request, the Authority provides assistance in 
finding units for families who, because of age, handicap, or other reasons, are 
unable to locate suitable housing. Assistance is also provided to families who 
allege discrimination. Families are given a copy of the stamdard housing form 
which notes the criteria for acceptable housing to aid them in identifying 
suitable housing. After approving the unit and the lease, the Authority execu- 
tes a Housing Assistance Payments Contract. Immediately prior to the rent due 
date, the Housing Assistance Payment is nailed to the landlord. The Hcusing 
Assistance Payment covers the difference between the Contract Rent and the por- 
tion payable by the family. The eligibility of elderly families is recertified 
bi-annually. The eligibility of non-elderly families is recertified on an 
annual basis. 

The ccmbined waiting list for the Authority's Section 23 and Section 8 Hcusing 
Programs consists of over 1,000 families. The executive director estimates that 
about one-half of the City's need for public housing is being mst presently. 

As a mechanism for settling differences between tenants and the Authority, a 
grievance procedure is available to families in the Section 23 Hcusing Program. 
According to the procedure, all grievances and complaints are first presented to 
the Authority's central office. At this point they are discussed informally 
and, if possible, settled without a hearing. If the complainant desires a 
hearing, a written request is made to the Authority. Tae matter is then pre- 
sented before a hearing officer for final disposition. The hearing officer is 
an impartial disinterested person selected jointly by the canplainant and the 
Authority. 

The grievance procedure available to tenants under the Section 23 Program is not 
available to tenants under Section 8. Tenants under the Section 8 Program are 
instructed to notify the Authority if they should have a complaint against the 
landlord for non-compliance with the lease or contract. After receiving such 
notice and an investigation is conducted which determines that the landlord is 
in non-compliance with the contract or lease, the landlord is notified by the 
Authority in writing as to the results of the investigation and the need to take 
corrective action. 

Every possible effort is made by the Authority to settle the ccmplaint without 
the Authority exercising its options of terminating the Housing Assistance 
Payment and relocating the family. 



74 



Currently, the Authority's Ivey-Green Project under Section 23 does not have a 
tenant organization since a previously activated organization 'oecame defunct. 
Believing that the tenant organization is a highly important component of the 
Authority, the executive director expressed an intent to reactivate the organi- 
zation as soon as possible. The Section 8 Program does not require a tenant 
organization. 

The executive director expressed dissatisfaction over the current level and 
variety of services available to the families in the Section 23 Program. 
According to the executive director, the ser/ices provided are inadequate pri- 
marily due to insufficient funds. Current services include child day care and 
transportation for the elderly. The recreation center at Ivey-Green has been 
vandalized and is non-functional. The Authority's Section 23 Program budget for 
the current fiscal year includes funds for the improvement of tenant services. 
The Section 8 Program does not provide for any social or recreation services or 
facilities . 

The maintenance of the Riviera Beach Housing Authority applies only to its 
Section 23 Program at Ivey-Green. This program is aimed at the upkeep of these 
units including appliances and electrical and plumbing fixtures. In the case of 
occupied units, the msst common service required involves window and screen 
replacements, refrigerator and stove repairs, and minor plumbing problems. 
Immediately after each vacancy, the unit is cleaned, painted and fumigated. In 
the case of requests for inside painting, tenants can be supplied paint and do 
the work themselves, if they so desire. 

The Authority has three (3) maintenance mechanics Ca general repairman, a car- 
penter and a plumber) on 24-hour call. Ground maintenance is the responsibility 
of the Authority. In the Section 8 Program, the provision of services, 
maintenance, security and utilities is governed by the terms agreed upon in the 
lease and the Housing Assistance Payment Contract. The landlord is also subject 
to the conditions and provisions of Florida's Landlord and Tenant Law, F.S. 83. 

Despite the vandalization of the Ivey-Green recreation center, the executive 
director indicated that there have been no recent reports of security problems 
fnom tenants. All families are continuously urged to make such reports imme- 
diately as the need arises. Tne play area where the recreation center is 
located currently is being locked up at night to curtail any future damage. 

Delray Beach Housing Authority 

The City of Delray Beach is situated in the southeastern part of Palm Beach 
County. The City's 1978 population was estimated at 3^,075 with minorities 
comprising 28^ of the population. In 1970, the City's median family income was 
$8,659, while the ccmparable figure for Palm Beach County was $9,112. The 
median income for minority families in 1970 was statisticadly less at $6,500. 

The City of Delray Beach is currently a participant in the Palm Beach County 
CDBG Program. V/hile the CDBG Program addresses housing needs from a broad 
perspective, it includes a HAP which specifically addresses housir:g needs such 
as rehabilitation, public housing, or rent supplements for the City's lower- 
income households. In Delray, the County Program has designated a Neighborhood 
Strategy Area (NSA) which is the focus of specific housing assistance programs. 

75 



^r%ere are no direct linkages between the efforts of the Delray Beach Housing 
Authority and the Palm Beach County CDBG Program. 

Physical Characteristics 

The Delray Beach Housing Authority currently has 264 units under its management. 
These units are supported under the Section 8 Housing Assistance Paytosnt 
Program. Only 190 of these units are currently active due to a shortage of 
available units for leasing. Funding fbr the remaining 80 units is available. 
The active units are scattered throughout the City. None are located in the 
City's unincorporated area. TABLE 21 provides a breakdown of the cooiposition of 
these units. The Authority also has an interlocal agreement with the Palm Beach 
County Housing Authority which allows the County Authority to enter the City for 
the purpose of providing Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments. The County 
-Authority can enter only vtien the Section 8 funds of the Delray Beach Housing 
Authority have been exhausted. 

The Delray Beach Housing Authority is presently utilizing a $4.2 million HQD 
grant toward renovating and ccmpleting its Carver Estates Project (formerly 
Stewart Arms). The completion of this project (which began in 1972) was held up 
until early 1979 due to funding complications. The present work schedule calls 
for completion by April 30, 1980. This project will increase the total number 
of units under the Authority's management to 464. 

The 200 Carver Estates units are being designed to consist of 30 one-bedrocm 
units with 18 for the handicapped; 63 two-bedroom units with 15 for the 
handicapped; 89 three-bedrocm units with 3 for the handicapped; and 18 four- 
bedroom units. Tne plans for this project include a child day care center, a 
playground, as well as the offices of the Authority. Tae Carver Estates Project 
is located at 1212 S.W. 8th Street. 

The Authority is also planning to pursue funding for a Section 8 Moderate 
Rehabilitation Project at Lake Delray Apartments. This project will involve 403 
units for the elderly. Lake Delray Apartments is located within the City's 
limits at 700 Lindell Boulevard. 

Organizat ional Characteristics 

The by-laws of the Delray Beach Housing Authority .indicate that the Authority's 
basic organizational structure consists of a Board of Commissioners and its 
administrative staff. The Authority's officers are a Board chainnan, a vice 
chairman, and a secretary (the executive director). The Authority's 
Commissioners are appointed by the Delray Beach City Council for a tenn of four 
(4) years. At its annual mseting the Authority elects a chairman and a vice 
chairman from among the Board of Commissioners. These officers hold office for 
one year or until successors are elected and qualified. The basic powers and 
responsibilities of all housing authorities are cited in Florida Statutes 
Chapter 421.08 (See Cnapter III, page 28). 



76 



TABLE 21 



DELRAY BEACH HOUSING AUTHORITY 



NU^4BER OF DWELLING UNITS | 








Units in 


Units in 


Dwelling 
Unit Sizes 


TOTAL 


Household Tyoes 


Incorporated 
Area 


Unincorporated 
Area 


264 


Elderly 


Handicapped 


Minorit;^ 


Eff. 


^ 


68 






• 




1-BR 




2 










2-BR 




1 










3-BR 












• 


4-BR 














5-BR 














6-BR 














TOTAL 


264* 


71 


«» 


110 


205 


- 



Source: Delray Beach Housing Authority, 1980. 

* Funding available for 59 additional units presently not under lease. 
**Elderly and Handicapped counted together; no separate breakdown readily 
available . 



The executive director is appointed annually by the Authority. The executive 
director supervises the nanagement and administration of the Authority, and is 
also diarged with the management of the Authority's housing projects. As deemed 
necessary in order to exercise its powers, duties and functions, the Authority 
may employ personnel in addition to the executive director. The by-laws of the 
Authority provide for three (3) types of meetings: annual, regular, and special 
meetings. In all meetings of the Authority, a quorum is obtained by the pre- 
sence of a majority of its five (5) Commissioners. Voting is done by roll call. 
The staff enjoys a highly cooperative relationship with the Authority's Board of 
Conmissioners . 

The current executive director has served in that capacity for the past two and 
one-half years. Prior to becaning the executive director, she served one and 
one-half years as a coordinator in the Authority's Section 8 Program. She is 
currently a member of the National Association of Housing and Redevelopment 
Officials in addition to the Florida Association of Housing and Redevelopment 
Officials. 

The administrative staff of the Delray Beach Housing Authority consists of four 
(4) permanent full-time employees and one temporary full-time employee fran the 
CETA Program (See FIGURE IX). Two (2) members of the staff are minorities 
including one black and one Hispanic. Currently, there are no tenants on staff. 
The Authority's legal assistance is provided through a local law finn. 



77 



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Although satisfaction 'was expressed with the quality of the staff's performance 
at present, concern was expressed over the need for additional personnel. It is 
felt that an assistant Section 8 Program Coordinator is needed, as well as two 
(2) interviewers with clerical ability. 

Due to budgetary constraints, trips to various training conferences are limited. 
No more than one conference per year is attended by the executive director. • 
Constraints on the Authority's budget have not, however, led to any problems in 
staff turnover. The executive director believes that the staff's productivity 
and the working environment have been enhanced largely by a "team" approach uti- 
lized in managing the Authority. Staff members are involved, to the greatest 
extent possible, in decision-making. The quality of the staff's perfonnance is 
also partly attributed to a successful relationship with the HUD Area Office in 
Jacksonville. It is felt that the HUD staff is cocperative and helpful. 

On the question of tenant participation in policy-anking with "full membership" 
on the Board of Canmi ssioners , the executive director envisioned possible 
problems. Particular concern was expressed over the fact that tenants would be 
involved in a great number of matters which do not directly affect them. Rather 
than full membership on the Board it is felt that tenant input, only on matters 
directly affecting then throu^ an advisory capacity, would be more appropriate. 
On the question of tenant participation in management, although there are no 
tenants currently on the staff, the executive director indicated that it is, in 
her opinion, a highly positive idea. She believes that tenant participation in 
management can greatly enhance ccmmunication between the Authority and tenants 
and that the tenants' acceptance of the Housing Authority as a symbol of 
authority is also enhanced. 

The executive director indicated that in the day-to-day management of the Delray 
Beach Housing Authority her time is usually allocated as follows: Tenant and 
Landlord matters (50$); Carver Estates Project (2556); Administration, including 
personnel matters, HUD and public relations (25%). 

Financial Characteristics 

The Authority's Section b Existing Housing Program budget is prepared and sub- 
mitted to HUD as an estimate of total required annual contributions to operate 
the program. The contributions frcm HUD are largely passed on to private 
landlords in the form of a Housing Assistance Program while a small portion. is 
retained by the Authority to cover the cost of administering the program. 

The format of the Section 8 budget consists of the maximum annual contributions 
available, including any reserve funds frcm the previous fiscal year and an 
estimate of required annual contributions to operate the program. 

An estimated total annual contributions available is computed as the sum of the 
maximum annual contributions authorized plus an estimated account balance 
(reserve) at the end of the current fiscal year. The Authority's estimate of 
required annual contributions for fiscal year 1980 was computed as the sum of 
the following expenses: 1) housing assistance payments (85*), 2) an administra- 
tive fee (11?), 3) the cost of an audit by an independent public accountant 
(.6/&), 4) a preliminary administrative expense (3%)> and 5) an expense for non- 
expendable equipment {.^%). 

79 



In fiscal year 1980, funding in excess of $500,000 is available for use in the 
Authority's Section 8 Existing Housing Program. However, the Authority is 
currently experiencing some difficulty in fully utilizing these funds due to a 
shortage of available units for leasing. 

Service Characteristics 

The Delray Beach Housing Authority serves approximately 205 households thrcugh 
it Section 8 Program. The Authority's.. Section 3 Program is governed by an Equal 
Opportunity Housing Plan (EOHP) and an Administrative Plan, both of which define 
the Program's policies and procedures. Primarily, the EOHP is designed to 
demonstrate the Authority's intent to administer the program on a non- 
discriminatory basis in the selection of participating families and in the pro- 
vision of services. The EOHP also includes procedures for the briefing of 
certificate holders and a procedure by viiich to address discrimination against 
certificate holders. The Administrative Plan, in addition to outlining the 
Program's policies and procedures, defines the duties of the Section 8 staff and 
addresses complaints by families under contracts and evictions. 

The Authority's Section 8 household are admitted into the Program according to 
established policies and procedures. Certification of eligibility is detenained 
through an application interview. The applicant's income is the principal 
criteria, followed by the applicant's housing conditions. After eligibility 
certification selections are nade based on the following- order of priorities: 

1 ) families displaced by government action; 

2) families without housing; 

3) families soon to be without housing; 

4) families living in substandard housing; and 

5) families paying more than 255& of their net income for rent. 

All of the families selected during a month are asked to attend a meeting con- 
ducted by the executive director and the Section 8 coordinator. At their 
meeting, the program is explained in detail, questions are answered, cer- 
tificates are issued, and a list of available housing is distributed. As a 
goal, *at least 30^ of the certificates are designated to go to families 
quali f3ring as very low-inccme families. Subsequently, it is the certified 
family's responsibility to find suitable housing and to negotiate a lease with 
the landlord. Based on HUD's "Binders-Keepers" policy, the unit a family is 
living in at the issuance of the certificate may be eligible for Housing 
Assistance Payments if it qualifies as Existing Housing. After approving the 
lease and the unit, the Authority executes a Housing Assistance Payments 
Contract. No later than two (2) days prior to the rent due date, the Authority 
computes the Housing Assistance Payment and nails a chedc in that amount to the 
owner. 

The eligibility of non-elderly families is recertified annually along with a re- 
inspection of the units. The eligibility of elderly families is recertified 
biannually with an annual re-inspection of the units. Currently, the 
Authority's waiting list consists of over 100 families. The executive director 
estimates that only about one-third of the City's need for public housing is 
being met at present. 

80 



Grievance procedures available to tenants in conventional public housing are not 
applicable to the Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program. Under 
Section 8, the conditions of the lease and the Housing Assistance Payments 
Contract govern the relationship between the Authority, the tenant and the 
landlord. The Section 8 Program of the Delray Beach Housing Authority also does 
not have, nor requires, a tenant organization* 

The Authority's Section 8 Program does not provide for any social or recreation 
services or facilities for tenants. The landlord is obligated to provide only 
those services, maintenance, safety features, and utilities agreed upon under 
the HAP contract. The landlord is also subject to the conditions and provisions 
of Florida's Landlord and Tenant Law, F.S. 83. ' 

The acceptability of the Section 8 Program in the City of Delray Beach is 
increasing even thou^ there are almost no units available for leasing. The 
executive director indicated that almost all of the current landlords are very 
happy with the program, since landlords have no problem with collecting rents. 

Boca Raton Housing Authority 

The most recently created housing authority in the Ccunty is the Boca Raton 
Housing Authority, initiated by City Council action on November 14, 1978. 
Currently, the Authority has a Board of Commissioners, adopted by-laws, met all 
other organizational requirements, and has obtained HUD recognition with appro- 
val to pursue funding. However, the Authority has yet to declare itself offi- 
cicdly operational. Presently, no units are under its nanagement and no staff 
has been hired. The Boca Raton Ccmmunity Development Division serves as the 
Authority's technical assistance staff. 

According to the director of the City's C3DBG Program, the City is planning to 
utilize community development funds in the rehabilitation of forty (40) units 
which comprise Dixie Manor Apartments. This operation is planned to take at 
least six (6) months and upon its completion, management responsibility for 
these units will be given to the Authority. The CDBG Program director feels 
that the Authority might, at that time, move to hire its own staff. It was also 
noted that the Dixie Manor site has sufficient land for the development of addi- 
tional units. 

The City's CDBG Program is also the present manager of 126 units under the 
Section 8 Existing Housing Program (See TABLE 22). 



81 



TABLE 22 

BOCA RATON SECTION 8 EXISTING UNITS 

Unit Size Unit and Tenant Type 

Efficiency -10 Elderly 

1 Bedrocm 20 Elderly 

1 Bedrocm 42 Family 

2 Bedrocm 45 Family 

3 Bedrocm 9 Family 

TOTAL 126 

SOURCE: Boca Raton Cammmity Improvement Department, 1980 

The Ccmmunity Development Director indicated that no decision has yet been made 
as to if these units might be given to the Housing Authority. Tne director 
feels that it would -be appropriate that management responsibility for the 
Section 8 units, at some point, be given to the Housing Authority. 



82 



CHAPTER V 
AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSING AUTHORITY OPERATIONS 
IN PALM BEACH COUNTY 



The delivery of adequate public housing essentially requires that the basic con- 
cerns of the Florida Housing Authorities Law be satisfactorily addressed by each 
Housing Authority. In Chapter 421 'of the Florida Statutes, housing authorities 
are diarged with the delivery of safe and sanitary dwelling accanmodations at 
rents vdiich lower-inccme persons can afford. The law also requires that such 
housing be provided to relieve housing shortages including overcra/ded living 
conditions. The law explains Wiat overcrowded conditions "causes an increase in 
the spread of disease and crime and (as such) constitutes a menace to the 
health, safety, morals and welfare of the residents of the state and impair 
economic values. *>^^) 

This diapter will address these issues through an analytical discussion of the 
seven (7) housing authorities currently operating within Palm Beach County. 
Based on the Authority profiles developed in Chapter IV, this analysis chiefly 
involves a comparison of their ability to adequately deliver public housing. 
Each of the four (4) major characteristics (i.e., physical, organizational, 
financial, and service) is examined in a comparative manner. Each charac- 
teristic is examined separately in order to focus on the effectiveness of each 
aspect of the delivery systan. 

Physical Characteristics 

The term physical characteristics has been utilized to designate those factors 
which describe the housing under each authority's management. These factors 
include : 

- number of units; 

- location of public housing; 
. - construction dates; 

- building types; 

- external condition; 

- available facilities and features; and 

- household types. ^2) 

Also discussed are each authority's plans or current endeavors for program 
development . 

Housing authorities within Palm Beach County presently fall within three (3) . 
size categories — small, medium, and large. This observation is based on the 
following HUD designations: 

large housing authorities - 1 ,201 or more units 
medium housing authorities - 501 to 1,200 units 



small housing authorities - to 500 units. ^ 3) 

83 



-By managing a total of 1,5^^ units, the West Palm Beach Housing Authority is 
presently the largest authority operating within Palm Beach County. The Palm 
Beach County Housing Authority, with 1,051 units, is the second largest 
authority. These authorities are followed by the Belle Glade Housing Authority 
with 632 units, the Pahokee Housing Authority with 515 units, the Riviera Beach 
Housing Authority with 332 units, and the Delray Beach Housing Authority with 
264 units. Without any units under management, the Boca Raton Housing Authority 
is presently the snallest authority within the County. Once operational the 
Authority will probably operate- some 160 units. 

As reflected in TABLE 23, there is currently a total of 4,338 units of sub- 
sidized housing in the County. In ccmparison with other areas within the state, 
HUD Area Office officials feel that Palm Beach County can generally be con- 
sidered as an area of high subsidized housing activity. ^^^ 

Conventional housing (Authority owned including Section 23 housing) constitutes 
49.3% (2,137 units) of total units, while assisted housing (Section 8 housing) 
comprises the remaining 50.7* (2,201 units). Consequently, there is presently a 
balance between the number of conventional units and the number of assisted 
units under housing authority management. 

As noted earlier, conventional housing has been a part of the goverrmental and 
societal framework of Palm Beach County for the past four (4) decades. FIGURE X 
illustrates that between 1940 and 1950, 594 units of public housing \vere built; 
from 1950 to I960 only 115 units were constructed; fran I960 to 1970, 672 units 
were built; and frcm 1970 to 1980, 756 units were built. Of the current 2,137 
units of public housing, 28^ of the stock was built in the 1940s, another 5% was 
added in the 1950s, an additional 31* in the 1960s, and another 35* was added to 
the public housing stock in the 1970s. 

FIGURE X 



PUBLIC HOUSING CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY 





IN 


PALM BEACH COUNTY: 1 


940-1980 




756 _ 
672 _ 
594 _ 
115 _ 








• 






1-H 










=3 


- 













1940 T95O 19bO 1970 iW 



SOURCE: Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, derived 
frcm local Housing Authority Irifonnation, 1980. 



84 



I 



Based on FIGURE X, it can be observed that over one-third (1/3) of the public 
housing in the County is relatively new, being built within the last ten (10) 
years. 

The current geographic distribution of public housing reflects almost equal con- 
centrations between the Glades area and Greater West Palm Beach, 56.8^ (1,213 
units) and 43.2$ (924 units) respectively. There is currently no conventional 
housing south of West Palm Beach. The 200 units being built by the Delray Beach 
Housing Authority are not expected to be ready for occuf)ancy until mid 198O. 
The distribution of public housing by authority shows that the largest con- 
centration is presently in West Palm Beach with 634 units (29.7/6). Slightly 
smaller concentrations are found in Belle Glade with 632 units (29.6$), followed 
by Pahokee with 515 units (11.1$), Palm Beach County with 200 units (9.4$), and 
Riviera Beach with 156 units (7.3$). 

Although seven (7) of thirteen (13) public housing sites are located within 
lower-incOTie areas (3 are in Neighborhood Strategy Areas), public housing units 
are predominantly found in deconcent rated areas. Approximately 41$ of all 
public housing exists in lower-income areas and 59$ is located outside these 
areas. Despite the difference between these two (2) factors, it appears that 
HUD's concern for "the reduction of the isolation of incane groups within com- 
munities and geographical areas ... through the spatial deconcentration of housing 
opportunities..." is being addressed within Palm Beach County.-' The Belle Glade 
and Riviera Beach Housing Authorities each have all of their public housing 
units located in deconcentrated areas. The Palm Beach County Housing Authority 
has 67$, the Pahokee Housing Authority has 38.8$, and the West Palm Beach 
Housing Authority has 21.8$ of their public housing units located in a decon- 
centrated area. 

A variety of building types, acceptable external conditions, and various facili- 
ties and features have canbined to make public housing both appealing and 
acccmnodating. The types of buildings through which public housing is provided 
(See TABLE 23) are in conformance with the predominant building types found in 
the private sector. As a result, public housing is not readily identifiable as 
such. In the case of the three (3) most recently constructed sites (Dyson 
Circle, South Bay, and Ivey-Green), it is particularly difficult to visually 
identify them as public housing. This is largely due to contemporary designed 
features which cause them to resemble sane typical private sector townhouses and 
multi-family developments. With respect to future construction, the livability 
as well as the obscurity and public housing could be further enhanced through 
smaller sites. Out of the thirteen (13) existing public housing sites, ten (10) 
have in excess of 100 units; five (5) of these sites have 200 or more units. 
The financial feasibility of this action, however, may limit its implementation. 

The attractiveness and livability of public housing is also aided, in most 
cases, by structures which have no apparent external repair needs and adequate 
landscaping. The most noticeable exceptions are the projects of the Belle Glade 
Housing Authority where many of the units of frame construction exhibit visible 
signs of disrepair (e.g., missing pieces of exterior siding, doors needing 
replacement and a widespread need for paint). Also the plumbing beneath many 
of these units is readily visible. 



85 






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A3 noted earlier, EmHA housing is exclusively for agricultural workers. Since 
the provision of public housing is not the principle interest of the RnHA, as it 
is with HUD, and that program standards and criteria are different, these two 
(2) agencies and their products are incanparable . However, even with this 
understanding, it must be pointed out that the external structural condition of 
many of the farm labor housing units in Belle Glade do not meet the current 
structural quality of the remaining sites, in the Glades or on the coast. 

Most of the sites in the Glades area contain potentially hazardous areas 
(e.g.,- open ditches and canals). However, the Okeechobee site in Belle Glade 
also contains several dilapidated and abandoned units, many of which resulted 
from fires. 

The extent to viiich area public housing is accommodating and livable is further 
enhanced by the availability of several basic facilities and features. 
Amenities include off street parking and recreational facilities, ^rbage collec- 
tion systons, sidewalks, and adequate lighting. Vhile outdoor recreational 
facilities are generally available, in most cases such facilities often consist 
of an ill-equipped basketball court. Only West Palm Beach has avoided this 
problem. The only child day-care facility is located at the Okeechobee Project 
of the Belle Glade Housing Authority. Both sites in Belle Glade also feature a 
grocery store. 

Fran the broader perspective, public housing in Palm Beach Ccunty appears to 
have defeated the stereotyped and stigmatized images of public housing as slum 
housing. In many cases, public housing units are comparable in appearance with 
surrounding private housing. 

The physical diaracteristics of public housing also include household character- 
istics. Generally, most of public housing sites are occupied by minority house- 
holds which are small to medium in size. Out of the 2,137 households currently 
residing in public housing, 1,287 (60.22^) fall within the small to medium cate- 
gory and 606 (28.355^) fall within the medium to large category. Thus, it 
appears that the greater emphasis of public housing in Palm Beach County is on 
small and medium size families, with a substantially smaller emphasis on the 
nationally recognized housing needs of large families. The only public housing 
site catering exclusively to the elderly is the Scuthridge Project of the West 
Palm Beach Housing Authority. (Wedgewood, the Section 8 New Construction pro- 
ject managed by the Palm Beach County Housing Authority, also caters exclusively 
to the elderly.) 

As reflected in TABLE 23, there is presently a total of 2,201 units of Section 8 
housing under housing authority management within Palm Beach Cointy. Divided 
between the three (3) basic components of the Section 8 Housing Assistance 
Program, there are 2,121 units of existing housing and 80 units of new construc- 
tion housing. Currently, there is no housing under authority management iden- 
tifiable as Section 8 substantial rehabilitation. 

The current geographic distribution of Section 8 existing housing allocation 
under authority management shows that all of the 2,121 units are located in the 
coastal area (See FIGURE XI). Out of the current allocation, 1,860 (88^) units 
are presently engaged in lease agreements. V/ithin the County's coastal area, 
Section 8 existing housing under lease is scattered between Juno Beach at the 
north and Boca Raton to the south. The heaviest concentration of leased units 
are located within the Greater West Palm Beach area and the South County area. 

87 




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38 



The largest current allocation of Section 3 existing housing is 910 units, 
within the West Palm Beach Housing Authority. Presently, 823 (90^) of these 
units are engaged in lease agreements. The second largest allocation is 771 
units of the Palm Beach County Housing Authority. Presently, 656 (85^) of these 
units are under lease. The Delray Beach Housing Authority presently has 26M 
units allocated of which 205 (78^) are under lease, and the Riviera Beach 
Housing Authority has an allocation of 176, all of which are currently under.' 
lease. 

As reflected in the authority profiles, most of the executive directors 
expressed some difficulty in leasing 100^ of their allocations. This difficulty 
was ccmmonly attributed to the problem of the declining availability of leasable 
units. Possible reasons for this situation include negative cwner attitudes 
toward federal programs, families with children, and HUD imposed rent limits 
which many owners may feel are too low. Officials at the HUD Area Office in 
Jacksonville feel that the Section 8 existing housing ccmponent nay have reached 
its peak in popularity and effectiveness, '^^^ It would thus appear that the 
waning effectiveness of the Section 8 Existing Housing Program in Palm Beach 
County may also be a reality in other parts of the state as well. 

Just as all of the Section 8 existing housing under authority management is 
located within the County's coastal area, the 80 units of Section 8 new 
construction is also located within the coastal area. Recently, however, a pro- 
posal to provide 50 units of Section 8 new construction, to be located within 
the corporate limits of Belle Glade, was approved by HUD. According to the 
Belle Glade Ccmmunity Development Department, the date when construction on the 
proposed 2 and 3 bedrocm units is to begin is not yet known. The owner and 
developer of these units is planning to contract with the Belle Glade Housing 
Authority for management services.^ '^ The Palm Beach County Housing Authority 
is presently the only authority managing Section 8 new construction. 

The area of program development refers to each authority's planned or actual 
involvement in the rehabilitation, replaconent, and/ or the construction of addi- 
tional dwelling units. Authorities currently involved in program development 
activity include West Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, Belle Glade, and Delray 
Beach (See TABLE 24). 

TABLE 24 

HOUSING AUTHORITY PROGRAM DEVELOPI'ENT ACTIVITY: 1980 



Housing 
Authority 


Rehabilitation 


Reolacement 


New 
Construction 


Total 


West P^ilra Beach 


- 


- 


113 


113 


P??lm Beach .County 


100 


- 


243 


343 


Belle Glade 


- 


160 


- 


160 


Delray Beach 


- 


- 


200 


200 


TOTAL 


100 


160 


556 


816 



SOURCE: Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, derived from local Hoising 
Authority information, 198O. 

89 



-As- reflected in TABLE 24, the total amount of planned and actual program develop- 
ment activity for 19iJ0 currently involves 81 6 units. Mew construction with 556 
units is clearly the category with the greatest amount of activity. The only 
activity that has been started and is near completion is the 200 units at Delr^ 
Beach. 

With six (6) out of seven (7) housing authorities currently operating and a ccm- 
bined total of 4,338 units of subsidized housing, Palm Beach County is regarded ; 
by HUD as having a generally high level of subsidized housing activity. ^Q^* Most 
of the subsidized housing activity is located in the coastal areas of the 
County. Over half of the public housing stock is located within the Greater 
West Palm Beach area and all of the Section 8 housing is located on the coast. 

Public housing within the County is generally appealing and acccmmodating due to 
a variety of building types and the availability of several basic facilities and 
-amenities. The largest part of the public housing stock is relatively new 
having been built within the last twenty (20) years. Public housing, for the 
large part is spatially deconcentrated (i.e., located cutside low-income areas). 
As a result, public housing is not readily identifiable and appears to have 
defeated traditional images of low-incane housing. 

The biggest problem for the Section 8 Program appears to involve the current 
difficulty of locating leasable units in an amount to er^ge the present total 
number of Section 8 units authorized in Palm Beach County. 

Organizational Characteristics 

The term organizational diaracteristics has been utilized to designate factors 
describing the organizational structure which constitutes each housing 
authority. The two (2) basic organizational features are a Board of 
Canmissioners and its administrative staff. 

Each authority, with the exception of the Belle Glade Housing Authority, has 
adopted by-laws which specify the authority's organizational requirements. 
Major specifications include the authority's name, its officers and their 
duties, election and appointment guidelines, types of msetings, a provision for 
the edlployment of additional personnel and guidelines for by-law anendments. 
The by-laws of each authority appear to have been developed according to a stan- 
dard format. There are almost no fundamental differences between by-laws. 

As noted in Chapter III, Florida Statutes, Chapter 421 provides that each 
housing authority board should be composed of five (5) commissioners, each 
appointed for a term of four (4) years. As reflected in TABLE 24, only the 
Riviera Beach Housing Authority is presently operating without a full Board of 
Canmissioners. The Riviera Beach Housing Authority profile notes that this 
situation is partly a consequence of the Authority's history of managerial 
problems. None of the authorities is presently experiencing difficulty in 
obtaining a quorum at regular rreetings of its board. Each authority has also 
indicated the existence of a cooperative relationship between its Board of 
Cccmiss loners and the administrative staff. 



90 



The administrative staff of each authority is headed by an executive director, 
Gcranonly referred to in by-laws as the authority secretary. TABLE 25 shows that 
the executive director with the greatest length of service is currently serving 
the West Palm Beach Housing Authority. The newest executive director is 
currently serving the Riviera Beach Housing Authority. With the average length 
of service currently at four (4) years, it would appear that executive turnover 
has been relatively minimal, and that administrative leadership has thus been 
stable. Only the Riviera Beach Housing Authority has been unable to avoid this 
problem. The current executive director is the third to be appointed since late 
1978. 

The experience of most of the executive directors, immediately prior to 
appointment, is within the area of public housing management (i.e., acting 
director, assistant director, or Section 8 coordinator). Although program 
administration is an obvious and predictable management priority of each execu- 
tive director, program development is a less common priority. The distinction 
being made concerns the maintenance of a current level of service and an expan- 
sion beyond a current level of service. Since most of the executive directors 
feel that the programs they administer are currently meeting less than half of 
the need of their respective areas, program developnent would thus appear to be 
a necessary priority. The program development activity of the West Palm Beach, 
Palm Beach County, and Delray Beach Housing Authorities are detailed in the 
respective authority profiles. This activity is addressed further in the analy- 
sis of housing authority physical characteristics. 

TABLE 25 reflects a variety of administrative staff sizes which vary according 
to the sizes of the authorities. Staffs of full-time employees range fron 
thirty-seven (37) at the West Palm Beach Housing Authority to five (5) at the 
Delray Beach Housing Authority. None of the authorities indicated the 
employment of any part-time personnel. The number of permanent full-time 
Qnployees at each authority is broken down into two (2) categories: administra- 
tive and maintenance. The appropriateness of the size of each of these two (2) 
groups at each authority can be measured against the following HUD requirements: 
one administrative person for every 100 dwelling units and one maintenance per- 
son for every 50 dwelling units (this does not pertain to units under the 
Section 8 Program except for new construction under authority management). In 
this instance, administrative employees include executive directors, secre- 
taries, administrative assistants, project mar^agers and exclude community ser- 
vice personnel (e.g., social workers, service coordinators, etc.). 

Based on HUD's rule of thumb guidelines, TABLE 26 shows that the administrative 
staffs of the West Palm Beach and the Pahokee Housing Authorities are slightly 
below adequate, while the administrative staffs of the Palm Beach County and 
Riviera Beach Housing Authorities appear to be more than adequate. On the other 
hand, the maintenance staffs of all the authorities represented appear either on 
balance or in excess of an adequate level. 

The HUD guidelines should not be regarded as a strict measure of staffing ade- 
quacy or inadequacy. However, the utility of the above measurements can be 
improved as several other factors (e.g., the geographic distribution of units, 
sizes, age, staff experience, etc.) are taken into consideration. Consequently, 
measuranents of staffing adequacy may often differ with the actual feelings 
within such agency. Each of the authorities represented in TABLE 26 indicated a 
need for additional maintenance persorjiel even though the HUD guidelines indi- 
cates an adequate staff. 

91 



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92 



TABLE 26 
RELATIVE PERSONNEL ADEQUACY 



Housing 
Authority 


Unit of 
Public 
Housing . 


Administrative 
Staff 


Maintenance 
Staff 


Actual 
Size 


Required 
Size 


Actual 
Size 


Required 
Size 


West Palm Beach 


634 


5 


6 


16 


12 


Palm Reach County 


280 


7 


3 


6 


6 


Pahokee 


515 


4 


5 


11 


10 


Riviera Beach 


156 


4 


2 


4 


3 



SOURCE: Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, derived from local 
Housing Authority information, 1980. 



Since all of the authorities are budgetarily constrained, most have at one time 
or another made an effort to coordinate with the Palm Beach County Employment 
and Training Program. This program, which is funded under the Comprehensive 
Employment and Training Act (CETA) of 1973, is a source of temporary full-time 
employees. Proportionately, the Riviera Beach Housing Authority is currently 
making the greatest use of the CETA Program with four (3155) out of thirteen (13) 
employees. Riviera Beach is followed by Delray Beach with 20*, Palm Beach 
County with ^9% and Pahokee with 5^. Palm Beach County and the Pahokee Housing 
Authorities are currently seeking additional support from the CETA Program. 
This program provides a potentially unlimited source of trainees for the 
authorities' use. 

All of the authorities' staffs have a minority (i.e., non-white) composition of 
4055 or greater. Riviera Beach Housing Authority has the highest ccmposition 
(10055), followed by Belle Glade (7055), Pahokee (67$), West Palm Beach (5155), 
Palm Beach County (44$), and Delray Beach (40$). Staff tenant compositions are 
even more varied; three (3) authorities have tenants on staff (Belle Glade-89$, 
Pahokee-6755, and West Palm Beach- 1355). 

The issue of tenant participation in both policy-making and management is highly 
prominent. Nfeny public housing tenants strongly feel that they are more aware 
of their problems and needs than the average authority canmissioner who has ■ 
never lived in public housing. These tenants, as a result, feel they deserve 
the opportunity to fully participate in both policy-making and management. 
Although tenant participation in management through employment with the 
authority is a conmon practice, tenant participation in policy-making through 
membership on the Board of Commissioners is not presently allowed in many areas 
of the country. While many are opposed to tenant membership on cocnnission 
boards, even more are opposed to a new tenant thrust toward "veto power," the 
right to scrutinize and censor policy and management decisions. Opponents to 
the "veto power" concept of tenant participation argue that such a notion 



93 



implies an ability on the part of the average tenant to efficiently and effec- 
tively manage a housing authority. Veto power opponents do not believe any 
such management ability is widely prevalent among public housing tenants. They 
feel further that any tenant with such a marketable skill would probably not 
have a need for public housing. 

Local executive director responses toward the issue of policy-making and manage- 
ment participation by tenants were essentially similar. On the question of par- 
ticipation in policy-making through membership on the Board of Cannissi oners, 
none were in favor of the idea; however, all but one expressed no objections. 
The remaining responses were in favor of participation through an advisory capa- 
city only on matters directly affecting tenants. The Pahokee Housing Authority 
has had a tenant ccramissioner since 1976. On the question of participation in 
management through employment with the authority, all but one regarded it as a 
highly positive managonent concepts The rsnaining respondent felt that the con- 
fidentiality of tenant records would be jeopardized. 

Financial Characteristics 

The term financial characteristics has been utilized in reference to each 
authority's total operating funds and total operating expenditures. Within the 
fiTamework of these basic concepts, financial information for housing authority 
activity in both public housing and the Section 8 Low-Inccme Housing Assistance 
Program is presented. 

Public Housing 

The basic factors addressed under public housing financial characteristics are 
each authority's operating funds and expenditures (See TABLE 27). Additionally, 
any estimated increases or decreases in authority reserves, as well as residual 
receipts are discussed. An average for each of these areas was computed based 
on budget information fron fiscal years 1978 and 1979. This average is then 
compared to the 1980 budget estimate. Since all but one of the authorities 
(Belle Glade) is a HUD affiliate, this analysis is developed almost exclusively 
based, on HUD concepts. (5) Comparability between the HUD authorities and the 
Belle Glade Housing Authority, an FmHA affiliate, is thus limited, although 
general observations can be made. It should also be noted that the involvement 
of the Riviera Beach Housing Authority in this analysis is also limited due to a 
lack of sufficient information. Delray Beach is excluded from this ar^alysis 
since it currently has no conventional or Section 23 public housing. 

Operating funds are composed of operating receipts and various HUD contribu- 
tions. Based on the terms and conditions of the HUD Annual Contributions 
Contract (see page 8 for explanation), the operating receipts of an authority 
refer to all rents, revenues, income and receipts. In the case of each 
authority, dwelling unit rents constitute the major source of operating 
receipts. Minor sources include excess utilities, non-dwelling rentals, and 
interest on general fund investments. 

Depicted in TABLE 27 are operating receipts for each authority. The differences 
in operating receipts are due to a variety of factors including the total number 
of units involved, anticipated occupancy rates, and the proportions of Icwer- 
and higher income families. Differences in operating receipts among the 
authorities bear no reflection on their ability to deliver public housing. 



94 



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95 



Authorities which showed increases in operating receipts canpared to their 
1978-1979 average, include West Palm Beach (7$), Palm Beach County (5%), and 
Belle Glade (5%). Only the Pahokee Housing Authority showed a decrease in 
receipts (7%). TABLE 27 also shows that operating receipts as a percentage of 
total operating funds vary from authority to authority: West Palm Beach (75^) j 
Palm Beach County (29/5); Belle Glade (100^); Pahokee (72$); and Riviera Beach 
(22%). These differences reflect upon the extent to which each authority is 
dependent upon outside support, especially HUD contributions. 

Major HUD contributions, based on the format of the operating budget, include 
operating subsidy and the Basic Annual Contribution. Operating subsidy is pro- 
vided for projects under both the conventional and the Section 23 housing 
programs. While an operating subsidy is provided for Section 23 leased housing 
programs on a case-by-case basis, subsidy for -conventional programs is provided 
based upon the Perfonnance Funding System (PFS). In determining the amount of 
operating subsidy for which an authority is eligible, the PFS computes a 
"formula expense level" based upon the following variables: 1) population of 
the SMSA, 2) average number of bedrocms per project unit, 3) average age of all 
the authority's projects, 4) HUD supplied Fair Market Rent for non-elevator 
two-bedroom units, 5) average height of each project, and 6) HUD supplied index 
for the relative regional operating cost. 

If the computed level of operating subsidy is less than what is needed to offset 
a deficit, the difference must be provided by the authority from other sources, 
typically a reserve account. If the computed level of operating subsidy is 
greater than what is needed to offset a deficit or if there is no deficit, the 
surplus is typically passed on to a reserve account. If the surplus is enough 
to push the reserve account beyond the maximum allowable level (i.e., 50$ of 
total estimated routine expenditures) only that portion of the surplus which 
will bring the reserve account to its maximum level can be added. A common 
deployment for any remaining surplus is a transf erral to the debt service fund. 

TABLE 27 shows HUD operating subsidy levels by authority for 198O. When com- 
pared to their 1978-1979 average. West Palm Beach shows a 3% decrease and 
Pahokee shows a 25$ decrease. Operating subsidy as a percentage of the total 
operating fund, varies from authority to authority. In West Palm Beach, 
operating subsidy accounts for 25$ of the total operating fund, in Palm Beach 
County, 16$; in Pahokee, 28$; and in Riviera Beach, 16$. 

The Basic Annual Contribution, as provided within the format of the operating 
budget, serves as the avenue through which debt service funds are provided to 
authorities with Section 23 leased housing. These funds serve toward paying off 
the bonds originally sold to finance the construction of the project. The 
amount of the Basic Annual Contribution is fixed and unchanged based on the 
Annual Contributions Contract as it is initially executed between HUD and the 
authority. Technically, this amount is only a maximum allowable annual contri- 
bution. A HUD formula relating to the authority's operating efficiency deter- 
mines the actual amount of the contribution which is provided on a quarterly 
basis. Essentially, the Basic Annual Contribution is an "earned" amount equal 
to or less than the aaximum allowable level. (10) 

Through the Basic Annual Contribution, debt service costs are being paid for the 
Section 23 projects managed by the Palm Beach County and Riviera Beach Housing 
Authorities. As a percentage of total operating funds, Palm Beach County's 
Basic Annual Contribution was 55$ and Riviera Beach's was 65$. 



96 



Overall, the short-term indication is that total operating funds are increasing. 
When the 1978-1979 average is compared to the 1980 estimate. West Palm Beach 
shows a 5% increase in operating funds- Based on the foregoing analysis, this 
increase appears to have been largely aided by the Authority's 7% increase in 
operating receipts, since the HDD operating subsidy decreased by 3^. Palm- Beach 
County shows the largest increase in operating funds with 17^. This increase is 
partly attributable to the 5% increase in operating receipts. However, the 
input of HUD contributions is unclear since no data is available for fiscal 
years 1978 and 1979. Belle Glade shows a 5% increase above the 1979 funding 
level, an amount equal to the increase in operating receipts. Only Pahokee 
shows a decrease (^3%) in total operating funds. This decrease appears to have 
resulted fran a 7% decrease in operating receipts and a 25?» decrease in 
operating subsidy. 

Operating expenditures, according to the HUD Annual Contributions Contract, 
constitute all costs incurred by an authority which are necessary in providing 
decent, safe, and sanitary dwellings for low-inccme families. Total operating 
expenditures for each authority are broken down into three (3) categories: 
routine, non-routine, and other. 

Routine expenditures typically represent the major continuing expenditures 
necessary in sustaining the operation of an authority. As reflected in 
TABLE 28, line itons comprising this cost element include: 1) administration, 
2) tenant services, 3) utilities, 4) ordinary maintenance and operation, 
5) protective services, and 6) general expenses. Expenditures for the Belle 
Glade Housing Authority are referred to under a general heading known as 
"Operations and Maintenance" including the following line itans: 1) salaries 
and wages, 2) utilities, 3) maintenance, 4) insurance, 5) taxes, and 6) other 
expenses. To facilitate comparability, the Belle Glade expenditure line items 
are included in TABLE 28 as routine expenditures: data for line item (1) is 
shown under administration; line item (2) is shown under utilities; line iton 
(3) is shown under ordinary maintenance and operation; and data for line items 
(4), (5) and (6) are shown under general expenses. 

,As shown in TABLE 28, an average was computed for each line itan. Based on the 
"1980 average expenditure per line item it is possible to establish the following 
spending priority: 

1) Ordinary maintenance and operation (35^); 

2) Administration (2756); 

3) Utilities (24^); 

4) General expense (1255); 

5) Tenant services (2$); 

6) Protective services (1^). 

There is no HUD regulation or rule of thumb regarding a desirable priority of 
spending. 



97 



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98 



Each authority's line item expenditures can also be compared to the 198O 
areawide average. While expenditures in the areas of general expenses, tenant 
services, and protective ser'/ices are generally close to the average for those 
areas, expenditures in other areas deviate from the average. In ordinary main- 
tenance and operation, the average is 35^ while West Palm Beach is high with 
W and Palm Beach County is low with 27%. A major factor affecting ordinary 
maintenance and operation cost for- West Palm Beach is structure age. Over' half 
of the units are 39 to 40 years old and thus require attention with increasing 
regularity. An additional factor is the dispersenent of the housing. Factors 
contributing to the Palm Beach County deviation are not readily discemable. In 
the area of administration. Palm Beach County shows the high expenditure (39%) 
and Pahokee shows the low (17%). Within the area of utilities, the greatest 
deviation is for Pahokee, with a high of 32%. Factors affecting these 
estimates, again, are not discemable. 

Non-routine expenditures historically represent those expenditures over and 
above the authority's normal operating requirements. Line items include extra- 
ordinary maintenance expenses, equipment replacement and new equipment. Any 
fluctuations between non-routine and routine expenditures are dependent upon the 
specific annual demands and objectives of the authority. TABLE 27 reflects 
these expenditures. 

Only the Palm Beach County and Riviera Beach Housing Authorities show an expen- 
diture in addition to the major categories of routine and non-routine expen- 
ditures. This expense is referred to within the format of the operating budget 
as "Rents to Owners of Leased Dwellings" and is classified only as an operating 
expense. As the annual leasing expense for the Authorities' Section 23 
projects, this expense constitutes the largest single expense item for each of 
these authorities. As a percentage of total operating expenditures, Palm Beach 
County's 198O estimate, as depicted in TABLE 26, is 60% and Riviera Beach's is 
65%. At such time as the bonds are paid off which originally financed the 
construction of the Section 23 projects at these Authorities, annual operating 
costs should be substantially reduced. 

OverBllf the short-term trends in total operating costs are varied among the 
authorities. When the 1978-1979 average operating costs are conpared to the 
1980 estimates. West Palm Beach shows an 8% decrease. Based on the information 
presented in TABLE 28, this decrease appears partly attributable to decreases in 
the areas of tenant services, utilities, and ordinary maintenance and operation. 
Palm Beach County shows a 4% increase in total operating expenditures. This 
increase appears partly attributable to increases within the areas of 
administration, tenant services, and general expenses. Belle Glade shows an 
increase of 5% above its 1979 cost level. This increase in costs appears 
related to increases within the areas of administration and ordinary maintenance 
and operation. 

In the case of Pahokee, TABLE 27 reveals a decline of less than 1% between the 
1978-1979 average and the 198O estimate. This slight decline in cost appears 
related to a slight decrease within the area of utilities. 



99 



'Witti respect to the relationship between estimated 1980 total operating expen- 
ditures and total operating funds, the situation is also varied among the repre- 
sented authorities. Only West Palm Beach shows 1980 total expenditures which 
are less than total operating funds. As reflected in TABLE 27, the difference 
of 2% was passed on to the Authority's reserve account creating an estimated 
1980 year end level that is 30^ of the maximum reserve level. In the cases of 
both Belle Glade and Riviera Beach, the estimated total operating expenditures 
and total operating funds are equal. In the cases of both Palm Beach County and 
Pahokee, the total operating expenditures exceed total operating funds. As 
shown in TABLE' 26, the Palm Beach County difference of 4.555 was made up of the 
Authority's reserve creating a decrease in that account, which created an esti- 
mated 1980 year end level that is 25% of the maximum reserve level. The Pahokee 
difference of ^S'% was also nade up with reserved funds with a resulting decrease 
in that account. Pahokee 's estimated 1980 year end reserve level is 10* of the 
maviTffliTn reserve level. 

Based on the information reflected in TABLE 27, none of the authorities show any 
residual receipts for 1978, 1979, or 1980. Residual receipts refer to aggregate 
operating receipts in excess of aggregate operating expenditures. Although no 
deficits are shown for 1980, \fest Palm Beach is shown as having had deficit 
budgets in both 1978 and 1979. Sufficient information was not available to 
assess Palm Beach County and Riviera Beach relative to deficits. 

Section 8 Housing 

The analytical discussion pertaining to the Section 8 Housing Assistance Program 
is concerned only with the Existing Housing conponent. Giving attention to the 
fiscal year 1980 Estimate of Required Annual Contributions, four (4) factors are 
addressed: 1) Housing Assistance Paynents; 2) Administrative Fee; 3) Audit 
Cost; and 4) Other (See TABLE ^). These are the major cost factors covered by 
the HUD annual contribution. 

•In Palm Beach County, there are four (4) housing authorities presently involved 
in the management of Section 8 ExistiTog Housing; West Palm Beach, Palm Beach 
County, Riviera Beach and Delray Beach. The current authorization of Section 8 
Existing Housirig for authority management in Palm Beach County consists of 2,101 
units. " In order to support this authorization, a variety of contribution 
requirements are depicted in TABLE 28. These varying requirements are due to a 
number of factors, especially the total number of units involved in each case 
and the sizes of the units. 

Funds for housing assistance payments comprise the largest portion of eadi 
authority's contribution requirement fran HUD. Housing Assistance Payments are 
■partial rent payments provided by the authority to Section 8 landlords on behalf 
of participating families. 

As a percentage of the total required contribution, the average request for 
housing assistance payments is 88*. As reflected in TABLE 29, the percentage 
allocations for this requirement are fairly equal ranging fran a high of 90.5' 
to a low of 86.1^. 



100 



TABLE 29 

FINANCIAL CHARACTERISTICS: SECTION 8 EXISTING HOUSING 

PALM BEACH COUNTY 



Housing 
Authority 


IS HO F:?=?tiTnflte of 


Required Annual Contributions 




Authorized 
Units 


Total 
Required 
Contribution 


Housing 
Assistance 
PaynentCJ) 


Adiriin. 
Fee(^) 


Audit 
Ccst(J) 


Other 


West Palm Beach 


910 


2,019,603 


86.1 


13.6 


0.1 


0.0 


Palm Be^ch County 


771 


2,766,020 


90.5 


9.5 


0.0 


0.0 


Riviera Beach 


176 


568,588 


89.1 


10.5 


.4 


0.0 


Delray Beach 


264 


764,052 


87.6 


12.0 


.2 


.05 



SOURCE: Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, Local Housing Authority 
information, 1980. 

Each authority in order to execute its program is allowed an administrative fee. 
The HUD formula provides for two (2) methods of ccmputing this fee. The 
authority is entitled to the greater amount. One method is equal to 8.5* of a 
HUD-approved fair market rent for a 2-bedrocm unit multiplied by the number of 
unit months. A second method is equal to the product of $15 multiplied by the 
number of unit nonths. As a percentage of the total required contributions, the 
average administrative fee is 11.4%. As in the case with the Housing Assistance 
Payment, the administrative fee requironents are also fairly equal ranging from 
a high of 13.6% to a low of 9.5%. 

As an additional allowable expense, each authority is permitted to include 
within the total required contribution the cost of an audit by an independent 
public accountant. As shown in TABLE 29, all of the percentage allocations are 
less than 1% of the total contribution requirement. 

Overall, although the amounts of required contribution are different, the per- 
centage distribution of expenditures is quite similar frcm authority to 
authority. The most significant control mechanism is the limitation placed on 
the manner in which administrative cost is computed. 

The future of the Section 8 Existing Housing Program in Palm Beach County could 
bring a reduction in the total number of authorized units and thus a reduction 
in the total cost of the program. This observation is directly related to the 
problem cited by almost all of the authorities concerning a persisting low 
vacancy rate within the County. The vacancy rate has a direct bearing upon the 
number of units available for leasing. Of the 2,121 units currently authorized 
for Palm Beach County, 12% are presently not engaged Ln leasing agreements due 
to the absence of available units for leasing. 



101 



Service Cnaracteristics 

The term service characteristics has been utilized in reference to the admission 
policies administered by each authority and the tenant services each provides 
(See TABLE 30). Service characteristics are different from the other major 
characteristics (i.e., physical, organizational, and financial) in that they are 
more directly concerned with the public housing tenant. This section is pri- 
marily concerned with public housing activities, since Section 8 families are 
not admitted, as such, and receive no tenant services. 

Two (2) basic factors are addressed in service characteristics; 1) admission 
policies and 2) tenant services. Brief attention is also given to the status of 
any tenant organizations established at each authority. Delray Beach is 
excluded from this analysis since it cuirrently has no conventional public 
housing. 

Guidelines governing the admission of families into public housing have been 
developed, approved and implemented by each authority. As reflected in 
TABLE 30, key elonents in each authority's admission policies include eligibil- 
ity criteria, preference, policies for continuing occupancy, a lease agreement 
and waiting list. 

Family income is the chief determinant of admission eligibility, with the excep- 
tion of Belle Glade. The principal factor in determining eligibility at the 
Belle Glade Housing Authority is agricultural employment. This difference marks 
a major distinction between HUD affiliated and FmHA affiliated housing 
authorities. Housing owned by HUD authorities is properly referred to as public 
housing and is provided for families with low- incomes. Housing owned by FmHA 
authorities is properly referred to as farm labor housing and is provided as 
low-rent housing for agricultural workers. Tnus, ^'Thile anployment is not 
necessary for admission eligibility in public housing, it is necessary for 
admission eligibility in farm labor housing. Consequently, the low-income 
emphasis of public housing has a profound impact on limiting operating receipts. 
Conversely, in farm labor housing such a relationship between aggregate tenant 
inccme and operating receipts does not necessarily exist. The analysis of 
financial characteristics shows that operating receipts constitute 100$ of the 
total operating funds for the Belle Glade Housing Authority. However, for 
public housing (HUD) authorities, operating receipts average 50$ of total 
operating funds. The remaining 50$ is derived fron HUD subsidies. 

Following a determination of admission eligibility, families are most commonly 
placed according to an established order of preference. This method of place- 
ment is practiced by all of the authorities except Belle Glade. As reflected in 
TABLE 30, all established orders of preference are first based upon a schedule 
of rent ranges. This schedule provides a variety of rent levels. The schedule 
also provides a corresponding percentage distribution of families to be allo- 
cated to each rent range. Essentially, the schedule of rent ranges comprises 
the authority's admission goals; the number of families to be admitted with 
lower rent levels up to the number with higher rent levels. The extent to which 
actual admissions correspond to planned admissions relates directly to the 
availability of total operating receipts (especially if the vacancy rate adheres 
to plan). Aside from rent range schedules, the authorities vary in their 
approach to establishing an order of preference. Within the schedule of rent 
ranges. West Palm Beach and Palm Beach County give preference first to those 
qualifyiPig or displaced. Pahokee also follows this pattern but according to 
established residency requirements. Preference in Riviera Beach is given first 
to residents of the city and second to non-residents. 

102 



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The admission policies of each authority also include policies governing con- 
tinuing occupancy. In public housing these policies principally require a re- 
examination of inccme for the purpose of rent adjustments. As such the policies 
governing continuing occupancy basically operate to safeguard the low-incone 
character of public housing, as well as to assure that eligible families are 
properly served. With respect to farm labor housing the continuing occupancy 
policies principally involve a re-examination of employment status to assure the 
provision of housing exclusively to agricultural workers. 

The most prominent elanent within the admissions process is the lease agreement 
betweoi the authority and the eligible family. The lease agreement formally and 
legally implements the admissions process, making both parties subject to all of 
the authority's rules and regulations. As indicated in TABLE 30, all the 
authorities have lease agresnents. While the lease agreonents for the HUD 
authorities have differences, they all subscribe to a model lease provided by 
the HUD Area Office in Jacksonville.^'' '1 5 The model lease incorporates all 
federal requirements and is periodically updated. It is reviewed by the Florida 
Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials which makes recommendations 
as to its form and content. Authority variations from the model lease must 
first be approved by HUD. The lease agreanent, in the case of Belle Glade, 
serves as the Authority's admission policies. 

In addition to the key elements already discussed the admission policies of each 
authority also provide for a waiting list. In each case a waiting list essen- 
tially serves as a roster of those families which have made preliminary applica- 
tion or which have been determined eligible, but for which appropriate units are 
not available. Depicted in TABLE 31 is the estimated number of families 
currently on the waiting list at each authority including Section 8 programs. 
There is a combined total of approximately 4,610 families currently on authority 
waiting lists. 

TABLE 31 

HOUSING AUTHORITY WAITING LIST INFORMATION 



Housing 
Authority 


Public 
Housing 


Section 8 


Total 


West Palm Beach 


250 


750 


1,000 


Palm Beach County 


1,100 


1,200 


2,300 


Belle Glade 


70 


- 


70 


Pahokee 


140 


- 


140 


Riviera Beach 


1,000 
( including 
Section 8) 


" 


1,000 


Delray Beach 


^^ 


100 


100 


TOTAL 


2,560 


2,050 


U,610 



Source: Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, derived from local 
Housing Authority information, I9S0. 



104 



The total number of families on waiting lists currently exceeds the total number 
of families presently residing in subsidized housing. Tnis observation 
suggests a trsnendous housing assistance need. All of the planned and presently 
executed efforts at program developnent, as shown in the analysis of physical 
characteristics, will only provide 656 (14^ of the suggested need) new and 
substantially rehabilitated units if all planned activity is realized. 

After being admitted into a public housing program, tenants have various social 
and technical needs which must be addressed by the authority. These needs are 
met through a variety of services provided to tenants by the authority. 
TABLE 30 shows that each authority makes certain social services are available 
to its tenants. These services are provided both directly and indirectly. The 
most common service provided directly is recreation. Most of the public housing 
sites have recreational facilities (e.g.-, playgrounds, canmunity/recreational 
centers). The West Palm Beach Housing Authority provides a wider range of 
recreational services directly to its tenants. These services include summer 
camp programs, site seeing tours, a variety of sporting activities, scouting, 
and landscaping contests. The Palm Beach County Housing Authority directly sup- 
ports a baseball and softball team. Seme authorities have expanded recreational 
services indirectly by allowing various public and private community organiza- 
tions to provide them. At the Palm Beach County Housing Authority, a 4H Club is 
sponsored by the Palm Beach County Cooperative Extension Service and other youth 
services are provided by the Youth Services Bureau. The Florida Farm Workers' 
Council provides recreational services at one site of both the Belle Glade and 
Pahokee Housing Authorities. In general, most of the efforts in the area of 
recreation are directed toward youth with very little attention toward the 
elderly. 

Other social services such as educational assistance, job training, child day 
care, transportation, and counseling are provided indirectly as the authorities 
attempt to work with various public and private community organizations. 
Authorities with the most prominent linkages with comnunity-based organizations 
are the West Palm Beach and Palm Beach County Housing Authorities. The Pahokee 
Housing Authority works primarily with the Palm Beach County Ccirmunity Action 
Council (CAC). Through a Neighborhood Service Center, CAC provides transporta- 
tion, referral services, senior citizen services and project Head Start. These 
services benefit the entire Glades area. 

In response to the current level of social service availability, several execu- 
tive directors expressed dissatisfaction. The most commonly cited problem was a 
lack of sufficient funds for the improvonent of social services. The relation- 
ship between any feelings of dissatisfaction and the fact that tenant services 
ranks fifth as a spending priority out of six line items is unclear, especially 
with respect to the actual amount of control authorities have in this area. The 
1980 estimated expenditure for tenant services averaged 2% of routine expendi- 
tures. In view of the problem of insufficient funds for social services, it 
appears that the West Palm Beach and the Palm Beach County Housing Authorities 
have made the best effort at implanenting alternative strategies. Through the 
efforts of the social service program coordinator practically all of the 
sporting equipment for the West Palm Beach Housing Authority is donated by local 
retailers. The West Palm Beach program coordinator has also been successful in 
enlisting the assistance of a wide range of canraunity-based organizations. The 
community services coordinator for the Palm Beach County Housing Authority has 
also been involved to a similar extent organizing a variety of donations. 



105 



'Other services available to tenants are of a technical nature involving dwelling 
unit maintenance, grounds-keeping, and protective services. As reflected in 
TABLE 30, all the authorities provide dwelling unit maintenance". This activity 
typically involves the repair and replacsnent of appliances and electrical and 
plumbing fixtures, as well as the repair and replacement of windows and screens. 
Each of the authorities also periodically engages in general improvsnent 
programs (e.g., exterior painting, dwelling unit rehabilitation and replace- 
ments). For fiscal year 1980, HUD initiated a Comprehensive iModemization 
Program. This program gives housing authorities the option of diverting 50^ of 
funds made available for public housing development for use in modernization and 
rehabilitation of existing public housing projects. (12) Chapter IV of this 
study notes that improvement activity was recently initiated by the West Palm 
Beach and the Pahokee Housing Authorities. The Belle Glade Housing Authority is 
planning a variety of improvements at its Okeechobee site which are to be ini- 
tiated in the near future. The livability of public housing is also fostered by 
adequate grounds-keeping services which are provided by each authority. The 
usual practice calls for authority responsibility for all of the common or open 
areas while tenants are held responsible immediately surrounding their place of 
residence. 

Dwelling unit maintenance and grounds-keeping play a critical role in each 
authority's attempt to provide safe, decent, and sanitary housing. The analysis 
of organizational characteristics indicated that the maintenance staff of each 
authority appears either in balance or in excess of an adequate level. The 
analysis of financial characteristics shows that the top spending priority of 
each authority is ordinary maintenance and operation. 

In addition to adequate dwelling unit maintenance and grounds-keeping services, 
the livability of public housing is further enhanced by the safety of tenants 
from criminal acts. Protective services are provided by each authority. While 
seme of the authorities indicated past experience with safety problems, none 
indicated any current problans. If safe environments do in fact currently 
exist, efforts to maintain these environments appear very low. Eased on the 
anal3rsis of financial characteristics, 198O estimated expenditures for protec- 
tive services average ^% of routine expenditures (Belle Glade not included). As 
a result, protective services is at the bottcm of spending priorities in each 
authority. 

Overall, it appears that the technical needs of tenants are accorded a higher 
priority than their social needs. This observation is based largely on the 
budgeted expenditure differential of 17:1 between ordinary maintenance/operation 
and tenant services. The analysis of financial characteristics shows that the 
average expenditure in the area of maintenance is 35* of the total routine 
expenditures. The average expenditure for tenant services is 2% of total 
routine expenditures. 

For the purpose of contesting actions by an authority (e.g., management 
negligence, rent increases, or evictions) tenants at each authority (with the 
exception of Belle Glade) have an opportunity to engage an established grievance 
procedure. Each of the executive directors indicated that there has been no 
need to hold a grievance hearing which is step 2 in the format of each 
authority's grievance procedure. The executive director of the Belle Glade 
Housing Authority indicated that the need for a formal grievance procedure has 
yet to arise. 



106 



As a mechanism through which tenants can participate in both the development and 
implementation of housing authority policy decisions, most of the authorities 
have established at least one tenant organization (See TABLE 32). Only Belle 
dade has yet to establish a tenant organization. 

Overall tenant participation via tenant organizations appears very low since 
only two of the sevoi (7) established tenant organizations are currently 
active— one at West Palm Beach's Southridge Project and one at the Pahokee 
Housing Authority. All of the authorities indicated that efforts are currently 
underway to reactivate inactive organizations. Belle Glade indicated that 
efforts to establish its initial tenant organization are presently being made. 
Reasons for the large number of inactive tenant organizations are unclear. 
Reasons why the two organizations that are active have remained so are also 
unclear. Executive director responses toward the issue of tenant participation 
on authority boards of commissioners and participation through employment with 
the authority are discussed in the analysis of organizational characteristics. 

TABLE 32 

HOUSING AUTHORITY TENANT ORGANIZATIONS 



Housing 
Authority 


ACTl\rE 


INACTIVE 


TOTAL 


West Palm Beach 


1 


2 


3 


Palm Beach County 





2 


2 


Belle Glade 











Pahokee 


1 





1 


Riviera Beach 





1 


1 


TOTAL 


2 


5 


7 



SOURCE: Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, derived from 
Housing Authority information, 1980. 

In 1978 a HUD Task Force on Tenant Participation in the Management of Low-Inccme 
Housing published its report consisting of majority and minority recamenda- 
tions. The consensus is that tenant participation both in policy-making and 
managonent needs to be improved. However, there are differences of opinion as 
to how this is to be achieved. ("IB) 



107 



FOOTNOTES 

1 Florida Statutes (1977), Chapter 421.02, p.2l8. 

2 Factors partially derived frcm HDD Low-Rent Housing Project Management Hand- 
book, Chapter 8, Section 4, Engineering Surveys and the HUD Housing 
Authority Physical Inspection Report , Form #92470. 

3 U.S. Department of Housing and. Urban Development, Final Report of the Task 
Force on Ter^ant Participation in the Management of Low-Income Hcusini? , 
(Washington, D.C.: HUD, 1978), p. 36. 

4 Telephone conversation with Mike Mitchell, -Public Housing Division, HUD Area 
Office, Jacksonville, Florida, February 1, 1980. 

5 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Federal Reg:ister , 
"Areawide Housing Opportunity Plans," Part VI, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 
Monday, January I6,"l978), p. 2358. 

6 Mike Mitchell, February 1, 198O. 

7 Telephone conversation with Remar Harvin, Director, Conmunity Development 
Department, City of Belle Glade, February 1, 198O. 

8 Mike Mitchell, February 1, 198O. 

9 Concepts derived fron HUD Low-Rent Housing Program Operating Budget, Form 
#52564 and HUD Annual Contributions Contract, Article IV, p. 32-56. 

10 Telephone conversation with Jean Bates, Financial Analyst, HUD Area Office, 
Jacksonville, Florida, February 21, 198O. 

11 Telephone conversation with Roosevelt Page, Public Housing Division, HDD 
Area Office, Jacksonville, Florida, February 28, 198O. 

12 Massoni Associates, Planners Roll Call , Vol. IV, No. 2 (Washington, D.C.: 
1980), p. 3. 

13 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Final Report - Tenant 
Participation , p. 36. 



108 



CHAPTER VI 
ALTERNATIVE HOUSING DELIVERY STRATEGIES FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY 

The preceding chapter presented an analysis of housing authority operations 
within Palm Beach County through the use of specific operational guidelines as 
provided by both HUD and Chapter 421 of the Florida Statutes .( 1 ) That analysis 
served as a base upon which to assess the structural adequacy of the current 
public housing delivery systan. As noted earlier, there are eight (8) housing 
authorities operational within the County, seven (7) of which are currently 
functioning. The structural framework under which these authorities operate is 
such that each is an independent and autonomous entity within its respective 
jurisdiction. These authorities currently operate in a manner which is designed 
to address only the housing needs of their individual jurisdictions. In 
goieral, the analysis presented in this report showed that each of the authori- 
ties has been successful in providing decent, safe and sanitary housing within 
the financial, reach of lower- income families; however, certain cannon problans 
were identified. These problans generally appear to be an inability to provide 
a sufficient amount of lower- income housing and adequate social services. 

In view of these problans, Chapter VI is aimed at exploring the ext^it to vrtiich 
an areawide approach to the delivery of public housing might remedy the present 
situation. In considering a change from a local to an areawide approach, two 
(2) basic considerations are highlighted: 1) individually, the authorities have 
not been able to effectively address the need for an expanded lower-income 
housing stock and adequate social services, and 2) collectively these problems 
might be addressed with better results. 

The concept of an areawide approach encompasses several basic ideas: decreased 
fragmentation and increased coordination; sh.ared goals and objectives instead of 
ccrapetitive goals and objectives; and a greater capacity for output as a result 
of conbined skills, technologies, fiscal abilities and other resources. An 
areawide approach to public housing would allow a combined effort in working to 
conpletely satisfy both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of federal and 
state requirements. This approach also fosters the spirit of intergovernmental 
coordination and creates a united fr*ont for increased leverage in dealing with 
the federal bureaucracy. 

The Florida Housing Authorities Law ( Florida. Statute, Chapter 421 ) provides a 
variety of alternative strategies for the delivery of public housing from an 
areawide perspective. This variety is most clearly expressed within a continuum 
of formal cooperation incorporated within Section 421 .11. This Section provides 
for varying degrees of cooperation between any two (2) or more housing authori- 
ties and any County or city housing authority and one or more local governing 
bodies. (2) 

The design of this continuum, particularly as it relates to cooperation between 
authorities, can be viewed as having extremities of total autonany at one end 
and consolidation at the other. Between these two (2) extremes are interim 
degrees of cooperation (See FIGURE XII). Under the concept of total consolida- 



109 



tion, two (2) or more authorities merge to a point at which all power and 
responsibility for fliture operations is transferred to one authority under the 
control of one board of commissioners. 

According to FIGURE XII, as authorities move in the direction of consolidation, 
the degree of cooperation between them increases while both individual 
authority power and responsibility decreases. The extensive cooperation at 
the point of consolidation would be facilitated oDst Likely thrcu^ both a reso- 
lution and a formal agreement between the participating authorities. To the 
extent that the idea of consolidation implies the dissolution of any participat- 
ing authority, it is generally regarded as impractical, if not impossible, 
especially in view of any existing responsibilities any of the authorities may 
have. At the other end of the continuum under the concept of total autonany, 
each authority operates totally independent without any cooperation and eadi is 
controlled by its cwn board of commissioners. -FIGURE XII shows that, as 
authorities move in the direction of total autonany, the degree of cooperation 
between them decreases while both individual authority power and responsibility 
increases . 

The concept of consolidation has been a topic of investigation and discussion at 
both the federal and state levels. During 1975, HUD initiated a two (2) year 
demonstration program to test consolidation and cooperation as alternative 
mechanisms in the delivery of public housing. The aim of this program vas to 
measure the impact of these alternatives relative to cost reductions, improved 
operating procedures and increased services to tenants. At the present time, 
the study still remains unfinished; however, HUD has identified local autonany 
as a formidable obstacle to the concept of consolidation. ^3) huD has yet to 
develop a formal position with respect to the feasibility of consolidation as a 
viable alternative strategy in the delivery of pubHc housing . On the- state 
level, the viability of consolidation as an alternative public housing delivery 
strategy is also questionable. According to officials at the Department of 
Canmunity Affairs, mandatory consolidation, a highly controversial issue, has 
come before the Florida Legislature on several occasions, most recently in 1978. 
Historically, however, this issue has been unable to progress beyond committee 
review. ^^^ Like HUD, the Department of Community Affairs has also been unable 
to develop a formal position as to the feasibility of consolidation. 

The cooperation continuum also suggests that there are varying degrees of 
cooperation between housing authorities. These interim degrees of cooperation 
provide a ^/oluntary means of addressing mutual needs and problems while also 
preserving the autonomy of each participating authority. Increased efficiency 
and lower operating costs can also be achieved depending upon the terms upon 
which such cooperative agreements are based. 

An example of an interim degree of cooperation can be found in the Brevard 
Family of Housing Authorities. This coalition is comprised of the housing 
authorities of Brevard County and the Cities of Cocoa, Melbourne, and 
Titusville. Organizationally, these authorities operate with one secretary/ 
executive director while each authority retains its board of commissioners. The 
employees of this coalition are treated as employees of one employer for taxing, 
insurance, social security, and other purposes. However, they are each assigned 



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to an individual authority. The Cocoa Housing Authority serves as the central 
adniinistrative office. Fran a fiscal standpoint, a separate general depository 
for HUD contributions is maintained at the central office for each authority. 
On a nxsnthly basis, each authority pays into a revolving joint fund. Out of 
this fund each authority's share of the day-to-day operations cost is paid on a 
prorated basis. This revolving fund is maintained in the name of the Cocoa 
Housing Authority. According to the executive director, the coalition currently 
enjoys a high degree of efficiency and economy due to several factors including 
standardization, consistency of policy, volume purchasing, increased 
specialization, and a high quality staff; The Brevard Family of Housing^ 
Authorities has operated as a coalition for the past twenty (20) years .^5) 

Seme neighboring authorities may dioose to exercise sane degree of formal 
cooperation while others may choose to operate in a totally autoncmous fashion 
without any degree of cooperation. Housing authorities operating under these 
latter conditions obviously cannot expect to enjoy any of the benefits which 
might be associated with the presence of cooperation or coordination. The 
situation characterized by this end of the continuum, where there is a canplete 
absence of any degree of formal cooperation, is similar to the situation as it 
presently exists within Palm Beach County. Canplete independence and autonany 
characterize the structural format under which the Palm Beach County housing 
authorities currently operate. Few resolutions have been adopted and few agree- 
ments have been executed between the authorities relative to the overall process 
of providing and managing public housing. 

Some advances have been achieved in the sphere of inter-authority cooperation 
within Palm Beach County. This is specifically depicted in the cooperation 
agreement which exists between the Palm Beach County and Boynton Beach Housing 
Authorities and the City of Boynton Beach. Under the tenns of this agreanent, 
the Palm Beach County Housing Authority entirely operates the delivery of public 
housing in Boynton Beach, although the board of conmissioners for the Boynton 
Beach Housing Authority retains responsibility for the provision of subsidized 
housing. The agreement allows Boynton Beach the availability of public housir^ 
expertise while greatly reducing start-up and operation costs. The Palm Beach 
County Housing Authority also has a cooperation agreement with the City of South 
Bay. This agreement was necessary in order for the County Authority to build 
its project within the corporate boundaries of the City of South Bay. Other 
less formal interlocal agreements exist in the County, generally within the 
implementation of Section 8 existing programs. Under these agreements, housing 
authorities are permitted to support Section 8 housing outside their designated 
areas of operation. These agreements can be executed between housing authori- 
ties or between a housing authority and a local municipality. Interlocal 
agreements currently exist between the Palm Beach County Housing Authority and 
the Housing Authorities of Delray Beach, Boynton Beach, and Riviera Beach, and 
the City of Lake Worth. These agreements contribute toward maximum utilization 
of Section 8 funds. In general, however, little formal cooperation exists bet- 
ween individual housing authorities operating within the County. One of the 
most significant results of this situation is that any ccmmon probleTi or need 
escapes solution through the impact of ccmbined skills, technologies and 
resources . 



112 



Front an areawide point of view, the analysis in Chapter Y identifies at least 
two (2) basic problems viiich the public housing delivery system within the 
County is currently experiencing. These problems involve a need to expand the 
housing stock and a need to more adequately provide social services to tenants. 
With respect to the housing stock inadequacy the foregoing analysis of physical 
characteristics shows that the current need for public housing (including 
Section 8 housing) amounts to 8,687 units. This figure is computed by combining 
the total mmber of currently occupied units (4,077) and the current need for 
additional units (4,610) based on waiting list estimates. When the total need 
for public housing (8,687 units) is ccmpared to the total number of currently 
available units (4,338), the result is that 49.9^ of the current need is being 
met vdaile 50% of the need is currently going unmet. The present level of unmet 
need can be attributed to several factors. According to the analysis of physi- 
cal characteristics, these factors include the following: 

1. Since 1976, no units of new public housing (including Section 8 New 
Construction Housing) have been built; 

-West Palm Beach has not added units since 1965 
-Palm Beach County has not added units since 1975 
-Belle Glade has not added units since 1940 
-Pahokee has not added units since 1971 
-Riviera Beacii has not added units since 1976 

2. The average construction date of public housing projects in Palm Beach 
County is 1959; thus, the average age is 21 years. In mid 1980, Delray 
Beach is planning to make public housing units available for the first 
time. This project consists of 200 units and has taken eight (8) years 
to complete. 

3. Only 556 additional units are projected to be built in 1980. This 
figure represents only 12$ of the estimated current need. Also, only 
100 units are scheduled to be rehabilitated in 1980 (See TAH.S 4). 

Concerning the provision of social services to tenants, most of the executive 
directors expressed dissatisfaction at the inadequacy of the services currently 
available. This problem was commonly attributed to a lack of sufficient funds 
for social service improvements. The 1980 estimated expenditures for tenant 
services averaged less than 2% of routine expenditures. 

It has been almost unanimously suggested by the executive directors that housing 
stock and social service inadequacies are problems which exceed the resources 
and capacities of their individual authorities. In view of this consensus, it 
would appear that these problems and other ccmmon needs aire prime candidates for 
a cooperative or coordinated approach if solutions and improvements are to be- 
sought. 

In addition to possible improvements within specific areas such as those 
relating to the overaill housing stock and tenant social services, the possi- 
bility also exists for improved efficiency and econcmy within the area of 
management in general. There are several basic factors which can characterize 
the cooperative process relative to housing authority (derations. These factors 
include the exchange of knowledge and skills through a communications network. 
Exchange tiaterial could include successful management practices and techniques 
as well as methods and ^preaches to specific problem situations. An additional 

113 



—factor is areawide policy-making based on canmon goals and objectives. Still 
another factor concerns the joint acquisition and utilization of equipment for 
data processing, maintenance, etc. The collective impact of these factors would 
be a greater measure of coordination particularly with respect to planning, 
budgeting, and implementation activity. 

The Brevard Family of Housing Authorities model provides still further insight 
into the potential of the cooperative process. As noted earHer, the Brevard 
coalition is currently experiencing a high degree of efficiency and econany as a 
result of the collective impact of several factors. These factors include the 
standardization of operational procedures, personnel policies, admission 
policies, grievance procedures, etc. Other factors include volume purdiasing 
and increased specialization especially relative to inventory, accounting, and 
bookkeeping control. An additional factor is that of a higher quality staff 
since ccmbined fiscal resources enables Brevard to pay competitive salaries. ^^^ 

Essentially, it appears that a cooperative areawide approach is a viable and 
practical alternative to the public housing delivery system as it currently 
operates within Palm Beach County. The Florida Housing Authorities Law provides 
several mechanisms for the implsnentation of such an areawide approach. The 
most flexible of these mechanisms is anbodied within Section 421.11 which provi- 
des for varying degrees of cooperation between housing authorities. With 
respect to the housing authorities within Palm Beach County, the remaining 
question relates to which of the alternative degrees of cooperation would be 
most appropriate. Under the present circumstances wherein "these authorities 
operate in a state of relative aatoncmy, it is unlikely that any extraae degree 
of cooperation such as consolidation ^vould or cculd be achieved. This is the 
case, especially in view of present political and financial situations. In 
light of these conditions, it would also be impractical to strongly consider a 
model such as that viiich characterizes the Brevard Family of Housing 
Authorities. Thus, the remaining alternatives all involve a less intense degree 
of cooperation. 

The basic reccmmendation of this study is that all of the Palm Beach County 
housing authorities, specifically the HUD affiliates, join to form a loose con- 
federation. The principal feature of such an alliance would be volunteerism. 
This feature would preserve the nHximum degree of independence in each prospec- 
tive participant. 

This areawide confederation could be facilitated through the formation of a com- 
mittee of public housing and development officials. Such a ccramittee would con- 
sist of one representative from each housing authority and one representative 
from each ccramunity development agency. Each agency's decision to participate 
in the formation of this committee would be formalized by a resolution adopted 
by the agency. 

The basic purpose of the camnittee would be to serve as a forum for the exchange 
of information and joint planning through periodic oEetings. This ccramittee 
would serve in an advisory capacity only. The activities of the canmittee would 
involve the implementation of an effective conmiunications network. Tnis would 
require the input of an areawide coordinating agent with the capacity to provide 
research, plans and advisory assistance. The role of the coordinating agent 
might best be suited to an areawide planning organization. Since housing is 
only one of several other services and functions within a metropolitan area, it 
would ailso be important that all housing activities be coordinated with all 
other areawide activities. This need too could especially be well served by an 
areawide planning organization. 

114 



There is a vd.de range of activities viiich could be entertained by an areawide 
housing committee. One of the most productive activities might be a series of 
workshops or seminars covering a variety of housing related topics 
(e.g., program development techniques, social services, financial inanagement, 
etc.). These presentations could feature local, state, and even national 
expertise. Sources of input would include experts fran member agencies, other 
housing authorities and ccramunity development agencies within the state, the 
Florida Department of Ccmmunity Affairs, the HUD Area Office, and other offi- 
cials from state and national housing and redevelopment associations. 

The success of this ccmmittee would be highly dependent upon the participation of a 
majority of the local public housing agencies, especially the larger ones. Only 
with voluntary majority participation will such a confederation as decribed 
above foster niitual benefits in the actual delivery of public housing and in 
dealing with the federal government. 

This approach would involve minimal regional interference and naximum local 
input. Ultimately, it would represent a major step toward realizing cooperation 
and coordination among all of toe principal entities (especially great is the 
need for an improved interface with local ccmmunity development programs) 
involved in the delivery of subsidized housing. This reccmmendation represents 
the most appropriate means of realizing the areawide goal of maximum housing 
assistance to the people of Palm Beach County. 



115 



FOOTNOTES 

1 HUD guidelines include the requirement that housing authorities operate in 
such a manner as to: 1) promote serviceability, efficiency, economy, and 
stability, and 2) achieve the economic and social well-being of all tenants. 
See HUD Terms and Conditions of a Consolidated Arjiual Contributions Contract: 
Between Local Authority and the United States of America: Part Two , 
November 1969, p. 17. 

2 Florida Statutes , Chapter 421.11(1) and (2), 1978, p. 222. 

3 Telephone conversation with Joyce Roberson, HUD Central Office, Washington, 
D.C. , June 26, 1979. 

'4 Telephone conversation with Joel Atkinson, Department of Community Affairs, 
State of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida, January 10, I98O. 

5 Frank C. Chavers, Executive Director, Brevard Family of Housing Authorities, 
Cocoa Beach, Florida, to Gary Butler, Area Planning Board of Palm Beach 
County, West Palm Beach, Florida, September 6, 1979. 

6 Telephone conversation with Frank Chavers, Executive Director, Brevard 
Family of Housing .Authorities, Cocoa Beach, Florida, I^feirch 13? 1980. 



116 



REFERENCES 

Abrams, Charles. The Future of Housing . New York: Harper & Bros., 1946. 

Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County. Areawide Housing Opportunity Plan for 
Palm Beach County . West Palm Beach, Florida, 1979. 

Area Planning Board. Regional Comprehensive Development Plan for Palm Beach 
County . West Palm' Beach, Florida, 1977. 

Atkinson, Joel. Housing Specialist, Florida Department of Community Affairs, 
Tallahassee, Florida. Interview, 10 January 1980. 

Bates, Jean. Financial Analyst, HUD Area Office, Jacksonville, Florida. 
Interview, 21 February 198O. 

Birch, Eugenie Fadner. "Woman-Made America: The Case of Early Public Housing 
Policy." Journal of the American Institute of Plarjiers , 44 (April 1978): 
130-143. 

Brown, Robert K. The Development of the Public Housing Program in the United 
States . Atlanta: Georgia State College of Business Administration, I960. 

Chavers, Frank C. Executive Director, Brevard Family of Housing Authorities, 
Cocoa Beach, Florida. Interview, 6 September 1979 and 13 March 198O. 

Hartman, Chester W. Housing and Social Policy . New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 
1975. 

Hartman, Chester W. and Carr, Gregg. "Housing Authorities Reconsidered." 
Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35 (January 1969): 10-19. 

Hartman, Chester W. and Levi, Margaret. "Public Housing Managers: An 

Appraisal." Journal of the American Institute of Planners 39 (March 1973)* 
125-137. 

Harvin, Remar. Director, Conmunity Development Department, Belle Glade, 
Florida. Interview, 1 February 198O. 

Humphrey, James. Executive Director, Belle Glade Housing Authority, Belle 
Glade, Florida. Interview, 14 November 1979. 

Lang, Jerry. Executive Director, West Palm Beach Housing Authority, West Palm 
Beach, Florida. Interview, 4 October 1979. 

Massoni Associates, Planners Roll Call , Vol. IV, No. 2 Washington, D.C.: 198O. 

Meehan, Eugene J. Public Housing Policy . New Brunswick: Center for Urban 
Policy Research, Rutgers University, 1975. 

Mills, Randy. Executive Director, Pahokee Housing Authority, Pahokee, Florida. 
Interview, 27 July 1979. 



117 



REFERENCES (Cont'd) 

Mitchell, Mike. Public Housing Specialist, HUD Area Office, Jacksonville, 
Florida. Interview, 1 February 198O. 

National Conmission on Urban Problems. Building; the American City . Washington, 
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968. 

Page, Roosevelt. Public Housing Specialist. HUD Ai?ea Office, Jacksonville, 
Florida. Interview, 21 February 198O. 

Palar, Thomas J. and Kiely, Edward S., eds. Public Administration, 

Intergovernmental Relations and Local Government Administration , Package XI. 
Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 1979. 

Roberson, Joyce. HUD Central Office, Washington, D.C. Interview, 26 June 1979- 

Seaman, Barry. Executive Director, Palm Beach County Housing Authority, West 
Palm Beach, Florida. Interview, 12 July 1979 • 

Silverman, Edward. "Community Development - Title I of the Housing and Conmunity 
Development Act of 197U," Journal of Housing (August 197U). 

Stringer, Clarence. Executive Director, Riviera Beach Housing Authority, 
Riviera Beach, Florida. Interview 5 October 1979* 

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Federal Register , "Areawide 
Housing Opportunity Plans," Part r/, Washington, D.C: Government Printing 
Office GPO, Monday, January 16, 1978. 

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Federal Register , "Section 8 
Housing Assistance Payments Program — Existing Housing," Part IV, Washington, 
D.C: GPO, Thursday, May 13, 1976. 

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Fir^ Report of the Task 
Force on Tenant Participation in the Management of Low-Income Housing , 
Washington, D.C: GPO, 1978. 

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.. "Highlights of HUD's Proposed 
1979 Budget," HUD Newsletter. V/ashington, D.C: HUD Publications. 

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Housing in the Seventies . 
Washington, D.C: GPO, 1974. 

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. HUD Programs . Washington, 
D.C: HUD Office of Public Affairs, 1977- 

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Terms and Conditions of a 
Consolidated Annual Contributions Contract Between Local Authority and the 
United States of America: Part Two . Washington, D.C : GPO, 1969- 

V/illiams, Deborah. Executive Director, Delray Beach Housing Authority, Delray 
Beach, Florida. Interview, 6 July 1979. 

Williams, Eric. Conmunity Development Block Grant Coordinator, Boca Raton 
Cocmunity Development Department, Boca Raton, Florida. Interview, 
27 September 1979- 

118 



APPENDIX 



Public Housing Sites 



119 



PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
DUNBAR VILLAGE 



"1 



CCANT 3 T i t tT 



^r 



CD 




1^ 



« 



,Ki 



X 



X 



N 



^ 



;c 



X)C 



sv 



r I f r c c .H r H 



J 




3 T li C C T 



<3S> 



^r 



source: West Palm 3eocti Housing Authority, 1980- 



120 



PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
SOUTHRIDGE 



ilVIUtO* bllltltOO. 



fir 



W7T¥r¥ 



? i: 






!L 



— trr ^ — i ll u — ' — cr 



3 



XJ T r r 1 r A ^ 




ffi 



n m 



fi 



-I?- 



r "TTT ^fT 



rr TFT -^ 






s 



r? n 



5fe__Ii_E__3 



■~v^ 



I: 



J^ 



ZL 



Od 



1, 



s 



>-■ 44r~ ~TT 



y~^ 



m. 



Tm 



I — , — a 



u iri u 



1! 



TFTT 



U 111 



I 



T 



r TFT ^TT 



4 J, ,<4>, .< 



2 



© 



■T*l ' 



J3J 



IT 



t 







XL MA ^ 



^6 



rr TTT 1 



a 



"U 






IL 



■ iJ . I a_c3 — I I — cp — I I — cp — I I — c?— o — I I — cp_ 



eeiciiioooivc- iitciiioi- 



/JJtJ^ SOURCE: West Polm Beoch Housing Authority, 1980. 



121 



J^ 'li JS^ "' 3iJ: """ "A' 258 2«C 2,8 "t 29B =° ^ JIB « <= 




PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
TWIN LAKES 



I 



[;!;] Q^ [^D CP u 

2 B I c" I 
1 



S B 



3 B 



<*J^r> SOURCF West Palm Beach Housing Authority, 1980- 



122 



J L 



I8th 



C HEERF UL 



STREET 



a: 





STREET 










CO 
■D 

33 

r— 




ai 



I9th 





II — F 












12-F 









CD 

m 
> 

STREET =! 

c 



20th 



STREET 



14-F 




13 G 


KisUn 








K ^o^ R.70B 
M*c Stscr 

^^ 

17— G 



2|ST 



STREET 



24— F 23-F 



22 nd 



STREET 



6— F 









*^^*^^^ 


i=t=| 


16— F 



18- F 






J2— G 



31 — F 50-F 29-E 28-F 27-F_ 



si'AJV. i.-. ' v.r- i:i.iuit ji7»'n? .. J','.';-,'? 
!"■>'« f;.-i;.A' ..?-s..< ^,"rAi w<»M>5 



i.Sj £»J^ ^^^^ 



BB 



23rd 



STREET 



35-F 34-F 



PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
PLEASANT CITY 




<3hTi> SOURCE: West Palm Beoch Housing Authority, 1980 



123 



PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
DYSON CIRCLE 



COMMUNITY 
CENTER 




d 



cram 



n 



^^ra 





CO ccp m 



_/ 



C 



3 



[ffti 



B 



J 



MANGO ROAD 



□ 



B: 



rrr 



/ 

L 
C 



<»j»J[*^ SOURCE: Palm Beach County Housing Authority, 1980- 



124 



" PALM BEACH ROAD 



a 



rx 



O U U' 

OAK COURT 



rTL-H 



A 




n 



JASMAN COURT 

' — \r i n 




r-L 



c 



"U — u~ 

HIBISCUS COURT 

~1 ^^^ 



J 



m 



U U LT 

ILEX COURT 




J-|_rU-| 



r^ 




□□ i 



n 



^•1£y SOURCE; Palm Beoch County Housiofl Authority, 1980- 



125 



PUBLIC HOUSING 
SITE: 

SOUTH BAY 



N 



BELLE GLADE HOUSING AUTHORITY 
Public Housing Site: 

Osceola Center 

(Site map currently not available) 



126 



BELLE GLADE HOUSING AUTHORITY 
Public Housing Site: 

Okeechobee Center 

(Site nnp currently not available) 



127 



CYPRESS AVENUE 






C=L 



n^ CD a CP 



CZ2 [ 



w 



PUBLIC 
HOUSING SITE: 

L.L.STUCKEY 
HOMES 



o 






















<n 



(O 







D 



CZI 



O 



FRIEND TERRACE 



PARKING 



I* 



ADMINISTRATION BLDG. 



LAKE AVENUE 



<32> 



SOURCE: Pahokee Housing Authority, I 980 



128 




PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
McCLURE VILLAGE 



<*l*i*^ source: Pahokee Housing Authority, 1980 



129 



PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
PADGETT ISLAND HOMES 




<32> 



iJUI^SOURCE: Pahokee Housing Authority, 1980 



PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: FREMD VILLAGE 



flOniPA ST A Tf Itc 4 D »,• ' 13 I U S KI«MfJir 441 f 




<*l*Jr) SOURCE: Pahokee Housing Authority, 1980- 



131 



n. 



2003 



[I^OST^ 



n 
11 




n 



2005 



2009 



u 




981 



||j!s7, 



196 



D 



/f. 



O 

o 



5: 



jRECREATipN:::::::::: 
::::::::iAREA::::::::: 



111972 




2014 



2016 



962 

LJ 2018 

u 



2024 



O 

o 



n 



2013 



u 



^ 




2015 



2017 




O 
O 



f^ 

^ 



n 



u 



952 2025 

(T5|D 



U 




2019 



2023 



PUBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
IVEY GREEN PROJECT 



* I »J •> SOURCE: Riviera Beach Housing Authority, 1979. 



132 



— MC 



4w< m Avf- 



"' gw. ' .J^ ' 



•sw '^ ^yg- 




ii' - I 



r 





U-i i 1 r 



yi-.sy 







^^j!^jw[uiiiiiBTfra 



I ■ 

I I 



^VJ II. Avg. 





lurnnTy 

lUJUJllliiLrS* 



J/fAl 



Ti r 



^=Jf: 






:^ 



0O 



=^UBLIC HOUSING SITE: 
CARVER ESTATES 



^\ 







;ki>0 






$3 





//'l 




'^J> 






WL, 










\P 



m 






<33j> 



SOURCE: Delray Beach Housing Authority, 1980. 



'Pal 



cr 



60 

ns6 



3iA2oa(oU.8o^45